Ureaplasma urealyticum disseminated multifocal abscesses in an immunocompromised adult patient: a case report.BMC Infect Dis 2020; 20(1):47BI
Ureaplasma urealyticum is a fastidious bacteria which lacks a cell wall. Extragenital infections are rare in immunocompetent adults. There are few literature reports of perinephric abscess. We present a case of non-resolving multifocal "culture-negative" abscesses in a hypogammaglobulinemic adult female due to U. urealyticum.
66-year-old female with a one-week history of fever, malaise and new right hip and leg pain. Past medical history was notable for chronic pancytopenia secondary to in remission B cell follicular lymphoma, ESRD on intermittent hemodialysis with bilateral nephrostomy tubes and Crohn's. CT abdomen/pelvis revealed a small left perinephric hematoma and proximal right femur fluid collection. Persistent right thigh pain led to additional ultrasound with anterior thigh collection and CT revealed an irregular rim-enhancing fluid collection in the left posterior pararenal space. Antimicrobial therapy included ertapenem and vancomycin followed by meropenem, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, daptomycin and metronidazole in setting of persistent culture-negative results and clinical deterioration. Following detection of U. urealyticum by 16S rDNA PCR in both left pararenal and right trochanteric bursa abscesses doxycycline was started. Despite this, the patient died four days later.
Disseminated infection by U. urealyticum has been documented in immunocompromised adult patients with few reports of perinephric abscess. We propose that ascending genitourinary route led to perinephric abscess. The multiple disseminated fluid collections make it highly suspicious for hematogenous spread given the lack of radiographic enhancement to suggest contiguous spread. Diagnosis and treatment of U. urealyticum-disseminated infection is extremely challenging as culture is laborious and not routinely performed. Furthermore, the lack of cell wall renders beta-lactams and vancomycin ineffective and therefore requirement for "atypical" coverage. Early diagnosis and treatment are key to prevent further complications and death.