Immunomodulatory Effect of Doxycycline Ameliorates Systemic and Pulmonary Inflammation in a Murine Polymicrobial Sepsis Model.Inflammation 2020I
Acute lung injury is an inflammatory condition developed after severe sepsis in response to excessive secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Doxycycline is widely reported to possess immunomodulatory activity through inhibition of various inflammatory pathways. Considering the broad spectrum of anti-inflammatory activity, protective effect of doxycycline was evaluated in clinically relevant murine polymicrobial sepsis model induced by caecal ligation and puncture (CLP). In this model, sepsis is accompanied with infection and therefore ceftriaxone at sub-protective dose was combined to retard the bacterial growth. Three hours after CLP challenge, mice were administered vehicle, ceftriaxone (100 mg/kg subcutaneously) alone and in combination with immunomodulatory dose of doxycycline (50 mg/kg, intraperitoneal) and survival were monitored for 5 days. Bacterial count in blood and peritoneal fluid along with cytokines [interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α] and myeloperoxidase (MPO) in plasma and lung homogenate were measured at 18 h post-CLP. Plasma glutathione (GSH) was also determined. Doxycycline in presence of ceftriaxone improved survival of septic mice by significantly reducing the plasma and lung pro-inflammatory cytokines and MPO levels. It also increased plasma GSH levels. Doxycycline did not improve antibacterial effect of ceftriaxone in combination, suggesting that the protective effect of doxycycline was due to its immunomodulatory activity. Doxycycline in the presence of ceftriaxone demonstrated improved survival of septic mice by modulating the immune response.