From surface to bulk modification: Plasma polymerization of amine-bearing coating by synergic strategy of biomolecule grafting and nitric oxide loading.Bioact Mater 2020; 5(1):17-25BM
Integration of two or more biomolecules with synergetic and complementary effects on a material surface can help to obtain multi-functions for various biomedical applications. However, the amounts of biomolecules integrated and their physiological functions are compromised due to the limited surface anchoring sites. Herein, we propose a novel concept of film engineering strategy "from surface to bulk synergetic modification". This new concept is realized by employing the surface amine groups of plasma polymerized allylamine (PPAm) film for grafting a molecule e.g., thrombin inhibitor, bivalirudin (BVLD), meanwhile its bulk amine groups is used as a universal depot for storing and releasing therapeutic nitric oxide (NO) gas as supplement to the functions of BVLD. It is demonstrated that such a "from surface to bulk synergetic modification" film engineering can impart the modified-substrates with anti-platelet and anti-coagulant dual functions, giving rise to a highly endothelium-mimetic thromboresistant property. We believe that our research provides a very promising strategy to deliver multifunctional surface versatilely that require NO release in combination with other properties, which will find broad biomedical applications in blood-contacting devices, and et al. Moreover, it also provides a brand-new film engineering strategy for tailoring surface multi-functionalities of a wide range of materials.