Interactive effects of roxithromycin and freshwater microalgae, Chlorella pyrenoidosa: Toxicity and removal mechanism.Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2020 Mar 15; 191:110156.EE
Roxithromycin (ROX) has received increasing concern due to its large usage, ubiquitous detection in environment and high ecotoxicology risk. This study investigated the acute and chronic effects of ROX on the growth, chlorophyll, antioxidant enzymes, and malonaldehyde (MDA) content of Chlorella pyrenoidosa, as well as the removal mechanism of ROX during microalgae cultivation. The calculated 96 h median effective concentration of ROX on yield (EyC50) and specific growth rate (ErC50) of C. pyrenoidosa was 0.81 and 2.87 mg/L, respectively. After 96 h exposure, 1.0 ~ 2.0 mg/L of ROX significantly inhibited the synthesis of chlorophyll and promoted the activities of SOD and CAT (p < 0.05). The MDA content increased with the ROX concentration increasing from 0.5 ~ 1.0 mg/L, and then decreased to 105.76% of the control exposure to 2.0 mg/L ROX, demonstrating the oxidative damage could be moderated by the upregulation of SOD and CAT activities. During the 21 d chronic exposure, low concentration of ROX (0.1 and 0.25 mg/L) showed no significant effect on the growth and chlorophyll content of algae during the first 14 d, but significantly inhibited the growth of algae and the synthesis of chlorophyll at 21 d (p < 0.05 or p < 0.01). 1.0 mg/L ROX significantly inhibited the growth of microalgae during 3 ~ 21 d and the synthesis of chlorophyll at 7 ~ 21 d. High concentration and long-term exposure of low concentration of ROX caused the SOD and CAT activities and MDA content to increase, demonstrating a higher level of oxidative damage of microalgae. During the first 14 d, abiotic removal of ROX played a more important role, contributing about 12.21% ~ 21.37% of ROX removal. After 14 d, the biodegradation of ROX by C. pyrenoidosa gradually became a more important removal mechanism, contributing about 45.99% ~ 53.30% of ROX removal at 21 d. Bio-adsorption and bioaccumulation both played minor roles in the removal of ROX during algae cultivation.