GA signaling is essential for the embryo-to-seedling transition during Arabidopsis seed germination, a ghost story.Plant Signal Behav 2020; :1705028PS
The plant hormone gibberellin (GA) stimulates developmental transitions including seed germination, flowering, and the transition from juvenile to adult growth stage. This study provided evidence that GA and the GA receptor GID1 (GA-INSENSITIVE DWARF1) are also needed for the embryo-to-seedling transition in Arabidopsis. The ga1-3 GA biosynthesis mutant fails to germinate unless GA is applied, whereas the gid1abc triple mutant fails to germinate because it cannot perceive endogenous or applied GA. Overexpression of the GID1a, GID1b, and GID1c GA receptors rescued the germination of a small percentage of ga1-3 seeds without GA application, and this rescue was improved by dormancy-breaking treatments, after-ripening and cold stratification. While GID1 overexpression stimulated ga1-3 seed germination, this germination was aberrant suggesting incomplete rescue of the germination process. Cotyledons emerged before the radicle, and the resulting "ghost" seedlings failed to develop a primary root, lost green coloration, and eventually died. The development of ga1-3 seedlings overexpressing GID1 was rescued by pre-germinative but not post-germinative GA application. Since the gid1abc mutant also exhibited a ghost phenotype after germination was rescued by cutting the seed coat, we concluded that both GA and GID1 are needed for the embryo-to-seedling transition prior to emergence from the seed coat.