Cold fluids for induction of targeted temperature management: A sub-study of the TTH48 trial.Resuscitation 2020R
Pre-intensive care unit (ICU) induction of targeted temperature management (TTM) with cold intravenous (i.v.) fluids does not appear to improve outcomes after in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). We hypothesized that this may be due to ineffective cooling and side effects.
A post hoc analysis of a sub-group of patients (n = 352) in the TTH48 trial (NCT01689077) who received or did not receive pre-ICU cooling using cold i.v. fluids. Data collection included patient characteristics, cardiac arrest factors, cooling methods, side effects and continuous core temperature measurements. The primary endpoint was the time to target temperature (TTT, < 34 °C), and the secondary endpoints included the incidence of circulatory side effects, abnormal electrolyte levels and hypoxia within the first 24 h of ICU care. A difference of 1 h in the TTT was determined as clinically significant a priori.
Of 352 patients included in the present analysis, 110 received pre-ICU cold fluids. The median time to the return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) and TTT in the pre-ICU cold fluids group was longer than that of the group that did not receive pre-ICU cold fluids (318 vs. 281 min, p < 0.01). In a linear regression model including the treatment centre, body mass index (BMI), chronic heart failure, diabetes mellitus and time to ROSC, the use of pre-ICU cold i.v. fluids was not associated with a shorter time to the target temperature (standardized beta coefficient: 0.06, 95% CI for B -49 and 16, p = 0.32). According to the receipt or not of pre-ICU cold i.v. fluids, there was no difference in the proportion of patients with hypoxia on ICU admission (1.8% vs. 3.3%, p = 0.43) or the proportion of patients with electrolyte abnormalities (hyponatremia: 1.8% vs. 2.9% p = 0.54; hypokalaemia: 1.8% vs. 4.5%, p = 0.20). Furthermore, there was no difference in hospital mortality between the groups.
The initiation of TTM with cold i.v. fluids before ICU arrival did not decrease the TTT. We detected no significant between-group difference in mortality or the incidence of side effects according to the administration or not of pre-ICU cold i.v fluids.