The Role of MKP-5 in Adipocyte-Macrophage Interactions during Obesity.Obes Facts 2020; :1-16OF
In obese individuals, chronic low-grade inflammation resulting from adipocyte-macrophage interactions is a major cause of adipose tissue dysfunction and metabolic disease. This study investigated the role of MAP kinase phosphatase-5 (MKP-5) in obesity-induced inflammation during macrophage and adipocyte interactions.
High-fat diet-induced obese mice were used to explore the role of MKP-5 in obesity-induced adipose tissue inflammation. Macrophage polarization was determined by inflammatory cytokine expression in MKP-5-overexpressed or -silenced Raw264.7 cells exposed to palmitate (PA) or M1/M2 macrophage inducers. To uncover the role of MKP-5 during macrophage-adipocyte interactions, a coculture system composed of differentiated 3T3-L1 and Raw264.7 cells was employed. MAPK inhibitors were used to investigate the involvement of MAPK signaling.
Increased MKP-5 expression was observed in adipose stromal vascular cells (SVCs) of obese mice. In Raw264.7 cells, MKP-5 promoted the switching of M1 macrophages to an M2 phenotype. Notably, MKP-5 reduced inflammation during the interaction of macrophages and adipocytes. MKP-5 overexpression in primary SVCs attenuated the expression of inflammatory mediators and increased the number of obesity-induced adipose tissue macrophages. MKP-5 suppressed PA-induced inflammation through the inactivation of P38, JNK, and ERK MAPKs.
MKP-5 promotes macrophages to switch from the M1 to the M2 phenotype and is an inflammatory inhibitor involved in obesity-induced adipose tissue inflammation and PA-triggered macrophage inflammation via the P38, JNK, and ERK MAPK pathways. MKP-5 may be developed into a potential therapeutic target for obesity-related diseases, including type 2 diabetes mellitus and insulin resistance.