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Low Plasma Appearance of (+)-Catechin and (-)-Catechin Compared with Epicatechin after Consumption of Beverages Prepared from Nonalkalized or Alkalized Cocoa-A Randomized, Double-Blind Trial.
Nutrients. 2020 Jan 16; 12(1)N

Abstract

Flavan-3-ols are claimed to be responsible for the cardioprotective effects of cocoa. Alkalized cocoa powder (ALC), commonly used for many non-confectionary products, including beverages, provides less (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin, and procyanidins and more (-)-catechin than nonalkalized cocoa powder (NALC). This may affect the plasma appearance of monomeric flavan-3-ol stereoisomers after consumption of NALC vs. ALC. Within a randomized, crossover trial, 12 healthy nonsmokers ingested a milk-based cocoa beverage providing either NALC or ALC. Blood was collected before and within 6 h postconsumption. (+)-Catechin, (-)-catechin, and epicatechin were analyzed in plasma by HPLC as sum of free and glucuronidated metabolites. Pharmacokinetic parameters were obtained by a one-compartment model with nonlinear regression methods. For epicatechin in plasma, total area under the curve within 6 h postconsumption (AUC0-6h) and incremental AUC0-6h were additionally calculated by using the linear trapezoidal method. After consumption of NALC and ALC, (+)-catechin and (-)-catechin were mostly not detectable in plasma, in contrast to epicatechin. For epicatechin, total AUC0-6h was different between both treatments, but not incremental AUC0-6h. Most kinetic parameters were similar for both treatments, but they varied strongly between individuals. Thus, epicatechin is the main monomeric flavan-3-ol in plasma after cocoa consumption. Whether NALC should be preferred against ALC due to its higher (-)-epicatechin content remains unclear with regard to the results on incremental AUC0-6h. Future studies should investigate epicatechin metabolites in plasma for a period up to 24 h in a larger sample size, taking into account genetic polymorphisms in epicatechin metabolism and should consider all metabolites to understand inter-individual differences after cocoa intake.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Faculty of Food, Nutrition and Hospitality Sciences, Hochschule Niederrhein, University of Applied Sciences, Rheydter Str. 277, 41065 Mönchengladbach, Germany. Institute of Nutritional and Food Sciences, Nutritional Physiology, University of Bonn, Nuβallee 9, 53115 Bonn, Germany.Institute of Nutritional and Food Sciences, Nutritional Physiology, University of Bonn, Nuβallee 9, 53115 Bonn, Germany.Institute of Nutritional and Food Sciences, Food Sciences, University of Bonn, Endenicher Allee 11-13, 53115 Bonn, Germany.Institute of Nutritional and Food Sciences, Food Sciences, University of Bonn, Endenicher Allee 11-13, 53115 Bonn, Germany.Institute of Nutritional and Food Sciences, Food Sciences, University of Bonn, Endenicher Allee 11-13, 53115 Bonn, Germany.Department of Urology and Children Urology, University Hospital Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Str. 25, 53127 Bonn, Germany.Institute of Nutritional and Food Sciences, Food Sciences, University of Bonn, Endenicher Allee 11-13, 53115 Bonn, Germany.Institute of Nutritional and Food Sciences, Nutritional Physiology, University of Bonn, Nuβallee 9, 53115 Bonn, Germany.Institute of Numerical Simulation, University of Bonn, Endenicher Allee 60, 53115 Bonn, Germany.

Pub Type(s)

Comparative Study
Journal Article
Randomized Controlled Trial

Language

eng

PubMed ID

31963163

Citation

Ellinger, Sabine, et al. "Low Plasma Appearance of (+)-Catechin and (-)-Catechin Compared With Epicatechin After Consumption of Beverages Prepared From Nonalkalized or Alkalized Cocoa-A Randomized, Double-Blind Trial." Nutrients, vol. 12, no. 1, 2020.
Ellinger S, Reusch A, Henckes L, et al. Low Plasma Appearance of (+)-Catechin and (-)-Catechin Compared with Epicatechin after Consumption of Beverages Prepared from Nonalkalized or Alkalized Cocoa-A Randomized, Double-Blind Trial. Nutrients. 2020;12(1).
Ellinger, S., Reusch, A., Henckes, L., Ritter, C., Zimmermann, B. F., Ellinger, J., Galensa, R., Stehle, P., & Helfrich, H. P. (2020). Low Plasma Appearance of (+)-Catechin and (-)-Catechin Compared with Epicatechin after Consumption of Beverages Prepared from Nonalkalized or Alkalized Cocoa-A Randomized, Double-Blind Trial. Nutrients, 12(1). https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12010231
Ellinger S, et al. Low Plasma Appearance of (+)-Catechin and (-)-Catechin Compared With Epicatechin After Consumption of Beverages Prepared From Nonalkalized or Alkalized Cocoa-A Randomized, Double-Blind Trial. Nutrients. 2020 Jan 16;12(1) PubMed PMID: 31963163.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Low Plasma Appearance of (+)-Catechin and (-)-Catechin Compared with Epicatechin after Consumption of Beverages Prepared from Nonalkalized or Alkalized Cocoa-A Randomized, Double-Blind Trial. AU - Ellinger,Sabine, AU - Reusch,Andreas, AU - Henckes,Lisa, AU - Ritter,Christina, AU - Zimmermann,Benno F, AU - Ellinger,Jörg, AU - Galensa,Rudolf, AU - Stehle,Peter, AU - Helfrich,Hans-Peter, Y1 - 2020/01/16/ PY - 2019/11/17/received PY - 2020/01/10/revised PY - 2020/01/13/accepted PY - 2020/1/23/entrez PY - 2020/1/23/pubmed PY - 2020/11/18/medline KW - (+)-catechin KW - (−)-catechin KW - (−)-epicatechin KW - chiral separation KW - cocoa KW - flavan-3-ol stereoisomers KW - one-compartment model KW - pharmacokinetics KW - plasma appearance JF - Nutrients JO - Nutrients VL - 12 IS - 1 N2 - Flavan-3-ols are claimed to be responsible for the cardioprotective effects of cocoa. Alkalized cocoa powder (ALC), commonly used for many non-confectionary products, including beverages, provides less (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin, and procyanidins and more (-)-catechin than nonalkalized cocoa powder (NALC). This may affect the plasma appearance of monomeric flavan-3-ol stereoisomers after consumption of NALC vs. ALC. Within a randomized, crossover trial, 12 healthy nonsmokers ingested a milk-based cocoa beverage providing either NALC or ALC. Blood was collected before and within 6 h postconsumption. (+)-Catechin, (-)-catechin, and epicatechin were analyzed in plasma by HPLC as sum of free and glucuronidated metabolites. Pharmacokinetic parameters were obtained by a one-compartment model with nonlinear regression methods. For epicatechin in plasma, total area under the curve within 6 h postconsumption (AUC0-6h) and incremental AUC0-6h were additionally calculated by using the linear trapezoidal method. After consumption of NALC and ALC, (+)-catechin and (-)-catechin were mostly not detectable in plasma, in contrast to epicatechin. For epicatechin, total AUC0-6h was different between both treatments, but not incremental AUC0-6h. Most kinetic parameters were similar for both treatments, but they varied strongly between individuals. Thus, epicatechin is the main monomeric flavan-3-ol in plasma after cocoa consumption. Whether NALC should be preferred against ALC due to its higher (-)-epicatechin content remains unclear with regard to the results on incremental AUC0-6h. Future studies should investigate epicatechin metabolites in plasma for a period up to 24 h in a larger sample size, taking into account genetic polymorphisms in epicatechin metabolism and should consider all metabolites to understand inter-individual differences after cocoa intake. SN - 2072-6643 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/31963163/Low_Plasma_Appearance_of__+__Catechin_and_____Catechin_Compared_with_Epicatechin_after_Consumption_of_Beverages_Prepared_from_Nonalkalized_or_Alkalized_Cocoa_A_Randomized_Double_Blind_Trial_ L2 - https://www.mdpi.com/resolver?pii=nu12010231 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -