Advances in Analysis of Biodistribution of Exosomes by Molecular Imaging.Int J Mol Sci. 2020 Jan 19; 21(2)IJ
Exosomes are nano-sized membranous vesicles produced by nearly all types of cells. Since exosome-like vesicles are produced in an evolutionarily conserved manner for information and function transfer from the originating cells to recipient cells, an increasing number of studies have focused on their application as therapeutic agents, drug delivery vehicles, and diagnostic targets. Analysis of the in vivo distribution of exosomes is a prerequisite for the development of exosome-based therapeutics and drug delivery vehicles with accurate prediction of therapeutic dose and potential side effects. Various attempts to evaluate the biodistribution of exosomes obtained from different sources have been reported. In this review, we examined the current trends and the advantages and disadvantages of the methods used to determine the biodistribution of exosomes by molecular imaging. We also reviewed 29 publications to compare the methods employed to isolate, analyze, and label exosomes as well as to determine the biodistribution of labeled exosomes.