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Burden of typhoid fever and cholera: similarities and differences. Prevention strategies for European travelers to endemic/epidemic areas.
J Prev Med Hyg. 2019 Dec; 60(4):E271-E285.JP

Abstract

The burden of diarrheal diseases is very high, accounting for 1.7 to 5 billion cases per year worldwide. Typhoid fever (TF) and cholera are potentially life-threatening infectious diseases, and are mainly transmitted through the consumption of food, drink or water that have been contaminated by the feces or urine of subjects excreting the pathogen. TF is mainly caused by Salmonella typhi, whereas cholera is caused by intestinal infection by the toxin-producing bacterium Vibrio cholerae. These diseases typically affect low- and middle-income countries where housing is overcrowded and water and sanitation are poor, or where conflicts or natural disasters have led to the collapse of the water, sanitation and healthcare systems. Mortality is higher in children under 5 years of age. Regarding their geographical distribution, TF has a high incidence in sub-Saharan Africa, India and south-east Asia, while cholera has a high incidence in a few African countries, particularly in the Horn of Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. In the fight against these diseases, preventive measures are fundamental. With modern air travel, transmissible diseases can spread across continents and oceans in a few days, constituting a threat to global public health. Nowadays, people travel for many reasons, such as tourism and business. Several surveys have shown that a high proportion of travelers lack adequate information on safety issues, such as timely vaccination and prophylactic medications. The main objective of this overview is to provide information to help European travelers to stay healthy while abroad, and thus also to reduce the potential importation of these diseases and their consequent implications for public health and society. The preventive measures to be implemented in the case of travel to countries where these diseases are still endemic are well known: the adoption of safe practices and vaccinations. It is important to stress that an effective preventive strategy should be based both on vaccinations and on hygiene travel guidelines. Furthermore, the emergence of multidrug-resistant strains is becoming a serious problem in the clinical treatment of these diseases. For this reason, vaccination is the main solution.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Health Sciences, University of Genoa, Italy.Department of Health Sciences, University of Genoa, Italy.Department of Health Sciences, University of Genoa, Italy.Department of Health Sciences, University of Genoa, Italy.Department of Health Sciences, University of Genoa, Italy.Department of Health Sciences, University of Genoa, Italy.Department of Health Sciences, University of Genoa, Italy.Department of Health Sciences, University of Genoa, Italy.Department of Health Sciences, University of Genoa, Italy.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

31967084

Citation

Amicizia, D, et al. "Burden of Typhoid Fever and Cholera: Similarities and Differences. Prevention Strategies for European Travelers to Endemic/epidemic Areas." Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene, vol. 60, no. 4, 2019, pp. E271-E285.
Amicizia D, Micale RT, Pennati BM, et al. Burden of typhoid fever and cholera: similarities and differences. Prevention strategies for European travelers to endemic/epidemic areas. J Prev Med Hyg. 2019;60(4):E271-E285.
Amicizia, D., Micale, R. T., Pennati, B. M., Zangrillo, F., Iovine, M., Lecini, E., Marchini, F., Lai, P. L., & Panatto, D. (2019). Burden of typhoid fever and cholera: similarities and differences. Prevention strategies for European travelers to endemic/epidemic areas. Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene, 60(4), E271-E285. https://doi.org/10.15167/2421-4248/jpmh2019.60.4.1333
Amicizia D, et al. Burden of Typhoid Fever and Cholera: Similarities and Differences. Prevention Strategies for European Travelers to Endemic/epidemic Areas. J Prev Med Hyg. 2019;60(4):E271-E285. PubMed PMID: 31967084.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Burden of typhoid fever and cholera: similarities and differences. Prevention strategies for European travelers to endemic/epidemic areas. AU - Amicizia,D, AU - Micale,R T, AU - Pennati,B M, AU - Zangrillo,F, AU - Iovine,M, AU - Lecini,E, AU - Marchini,F, AU - Lai,P L, AU - Panatto,D, Y1 - 2019/12/20/ PY - 2019/06/21/received PY - 2019/09/04/accepted PY - 2020/1/23/entrez PY - 2020/1/23/pubmed PY - 2020/7/4/medline KW - Cholera KW - Cholera vaccines KW - International travel KW - Salmonella Typhi KW - Travel medicine KW - Typhoid fever vaccines SP - E271 EP - E285 JF - Journal of preventive medicine and hygiene JO - J Prev Med Hyg VL - 60 IS - 4 N2 - The burden of diarrheal diseases is very high, accounting for 1.7 to 5 billion cases per year worldwide. Typhoid fever (TF) and cholera are potentially life-threatening infectious diseases, and are mainly transmitted through the consumption of food, drink or water that have been contaminated by the feces or urine of subjects excreting the pathogen. TF is mainly caused by Salmonella typhi, whereas cholera is caused by intestinal infection by the toxin-producing bacterium Vibrio cholerae. These diseases typically affect low- and middle-income countries where housing is overcrowded and water and sanitation are poor, or where conflicts or natural disasters have led to the collapse of the water, sanitation and healthcare systems. Mortality is higher in children under 5 years of age. Regarding their geographical distribution, TF has a high incidence in sub-Saharan Africa, India and south-east Asia, while cholera has a high incidence in a few African countries, particularly in the Horn of Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. In the fight against these diseases, preventive measures are fundamental. With modern air travel, transmissible diseases can spread across continents and oceans in a few days, constituting a threat to global public health. Nowadays, people travel for many reasons, such as tourism and business. Several surveys have shown that a high proportion of travelers lack adequate information on safety issues, such as timely vaccination and prophylactic medications. The main objective of this overview is to provide information to help European travelers to stay healthy while abroad, and thus also to reduce the potential importation of these diseases and their consequent implications for public health and society. The preventive measures to be implemented in the case of travel to countries where these diseases are still endemic are well known: the adoption of safe practices and vaccinations. It is important to stress that an effective preventive strategy should be based both on vaccinations and on hygiene travel guidelines. Furthermore, the emergence of multidrug-resistant strains is becoming a serious problem in the clinical treatment of these diseases. For this reason, vaccination is the main solution. SN - 2421-4248 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/31967084/Burden_of_typhoid_fever_and_cholera:_similarities_and_differences__Prevention_strategies_for_European_travelers_to_endemic/epidemic_areas_ DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -