Phenolic compounds extraction in enzymatic macerations of grape skins identified as low-level extractable total anthocyanin content.J Food Sci. 2020 Feb; 85(2):324-331.JF
Anthocyanins in wine principally depend on grape skin extractable anthocyanin content, that is, the amount of anthocyanins present in grape skin that are released to wine during the maceration stage. This amount of extractable anthocyanins is closely linked to the cell wall degradation of skin cells. Indeed, among other methodologies, the maceration in presence of different enzymes can be used to increase cell wall degradation, and therefore, the amount of anthocyanins extracted from grape skins to wine. Vitis vinifera L. cv. Tempranillo and Syrah red grapes have been identified as samples with low anthocyanin extraction potential by near infrared hyperspectral imaging. Grape skins have been macerated in the presence of cellulase, glucosidase, and pectinase. Then, color of the supernatants and phenolic compounds extracted from grape skins (total phenols, total flavanols, and total and individual anthocyanins) has been determined. Cellulase and glucosidase have shown a positive effect in the extraction of phenolic compounds from these grapes. Macerations carried out in the presence of cellulase have produced supernatants with a more intense color (lower lightness and higher chroma values), and a higher extraction of flavanols and anthocyanins than the respective control essays. However, pectinase treatments have produced the opposite effect, which could be partially explained by an eventual interaction between the cell wall polysaccharides liberated by pectinase and the phenolic compounds extracted. Synergy effects do not appear between cellulase and glucosidase. Moreover, the negative effect of the addition of pectinase might be due to the interactions between the cell wall material liberated by pectinase and the phenolic compounds extracted. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: In the present study, grape samples with a low anthocyanin extraction potential have been identified, and these samples have been macerated in the presence of different enzymes. The applied enzymes were three of the most common enzymes that are applied in the wine industry. Individual enzymes and mixtures have been applied to Syrah and Tempranillo grape skin samples and the results have been compared to control macerations. Knowledge in this topic will help the production of quality wines.