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Early Adherence and Biofilm Formation of Cutibacterium acnes (formerly Propionibacterium acnes) On Spinal Implant Materials.
Spine J 2020SJ

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Cutibacterium acnes (C. acnes) is associated with infection following shoulder and spine surgery due to follicular pore concentrations in these anatomic regions. It has been established that it can form biofilms on surgical implant materials, which may contribute to its role in perioperative infection, but its behavior of early colonization on those materials is not yet well understood.

PURPOSE

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the time to adherence and subsequent biofilm formation of C. acnes in the first 24 hours on implant materials commonly used in spinal surgery.

STUDY DESIGN

We compared the colonization and behavior of C. acnes over time when applied to 5 commonly used spine implant materials: polyether ether ketone (PEEK), cobalt chromium (CC), stainless steel (SS), titanium (Ti), and titanium alloy (TiA).

METHODS

C. acnes was applied onto samples of PEEK, CC, SS, Ti, and TiA, and allowed to adhere for periods of 4, 8, 12, 16, and 20 hours. Nonadherent bacteria were then washed from the samples. These samples were then allowed to continue incubating for a total 24 hours. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) were used to visualize all samples for the presence and quantification of C. acnes adherence at each time period. Subsequent transition to biofilm formation on these samples was assessed via SEM at each time period.

RESULTS

The PEEK specimens exhibited the highest amount of surface biological burden in the first 24 hours compared to the other materials, which displayed little or no adherence. Rapid biofilm formation first observed at 8 hours of allowed adhesion on PEEK, whereas no significant biofilm formation was seen on the other materials during the observed time period.

CONCLUSIONS

Although C. acnes is known to have a slow proliferation rate, the results of this investigation demonstrate that it can rapidly adhere to and form biofilm on PEEK. These data suggest that the use of PEEK implants placed during spinal surgery may facilitate early intraoperative colonization, and subsequent infection, compared to metallic implants.

CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE

The findings of this study suggest that PEEK may prove to be problematic as a choice of implant material in cases were C. acnes infection is a possibility.

Authors+Show Affiliations

The Diane N. Weiss Center for Orthopaedic Trauma Research, Rhode Island Hospital, Providence, RI 02906. Electronic address: dioscaris_garcia@brown.edu.The Diane N. Weiss Center for Orthopaedic Trauma Research, Rhode Island Hospital, Providence, RI 02906.The Diane N. Weiss Center for Orthopaedic Trauma Research, Rhode Island Hospital, Providence, RI 02906.The Diane N. Weiss Center for Orthopaedic Trauma Research, Rhode Island Hospital, Providence, RI 02906.The Diane N. Weiss Center for Orthopaedic Trauma Research, Rhode Island Hospital, Providence, RI 02906.The Diane N. Weiss Center for Orthopaedic Trauma Research, Rhode Island Hospital, Providence, RI 02906.The Diane N. Weiss Center for Orthopaedic Trauma Research, Rhode Island Hospital, Providence, RI 02906.The Diane N. Weiss Center for Orthopaedic Trauma Research, Rhode Island Hospital, Providence, RI 02906.The Diane N. Weiss Center for Orthopaedic Trauma Research, Rhode Island Hospital, Providence, RI 02906.The Diane N. Weiss Center for Orthopaedic Trauma Research, Rhode Island Hospital, Providence, RI 02906.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

31972305

Citation

Garcia, Dioscaris, et al. "Early Adherence and Biofilm Formation of Cutibacterium Acnes (formerly Propionibacterium Acnes) On Spinal Implant Materials." The Spine Journal : Official Journal of the North American Spine Society, 2020.
Garcia D, Mayfield CK, Leong J, et al. Early Adherence and Biofilm Formation of Cutibacterium acnes (formerly Propionibacterium acnes) On Spinal Implant Materials. Spine J. 2020.
Garcia, D., Mayfield, C. K., Leong, J., Deckey, D. G., Zega, A., Glasser, J., ... Born, C. (2020). Early Adherence and Biofilm Formation of Cutibacterium acnes (formerly Propionibacterium acnes) On Spinal Implant Materials. The Spine Journal : Official Journal of the North American Spine Society, doi:10.1016/j.spinee.2020.01.001.
Garcia D, et al. Early Adherence and Biofilm Formation of Cutibacterium Acnes (formerly Propionibacterium Acnes) On Spinal Implant Materials. Spine J. 2020 Jan 20; PubMed PMID: 31972305.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Early Adherence and Biofilm Formation of Cutibacterium acnes (formerly Propionibacterium acnes) On Spinal Implant Materials. AU - Garcia,Dioscaris, AU - Mayfield,Cory K, AU - Leong,Jacqueline, AU - Deckey,David G, AU - Zega,Alexandra, AU - Glasser,Jillian, AU - Daniels,Alan H, AU - Eberson,Craig, AU - Green,Andrew, AU - Born,Christopher, Y1 - 2020/01/20/ PY - 2019/09/19/received PY - 2020/01/08/revised PY - 2020/01/09/accepted PY - 2020/1/24/entrez PY - 2020/1/24/pubmed PY - 2020/1/24/medline KW - C. acnes KW - PEEK KW - biofilm KW - infection KW - intervertebral KW - perioperative JF - The spine journal : official journal of the North American Spine Society JO - Spine J N2 - BACKGROUND: Cutibacterium acnes (C. acnes) is associated with infection following shoulder and spine surgery due to follicular pore concentrations in these anatomic regions. It has been established that it can form biofilms on surgical implant materials, which may contribute to its role in perioperative infection, but its behavior of early colonization on those materials is not yet well understood. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the time to adherence and subsequent biofilm formation of C. acnes in the first 24 hours on implant materials commonly used in spinal surgery. STUDY DESIGN: We compared the colonization and behavior of C. acnes over time when applied to 5 commonly used spine implant materials: polyether ether ketone (PEEK), cobalt chromium (CC), stainless steel (SS), titanium (Ti), and titanium alloy (TiA). METHODS: C. acnes was applied onto samples of PEEK, CC, SS, Ti, and TiA, and allowed to adhere for periods of 4, 8, 12, 16, and 20 hours. Nonadherent bacteria were then washed from the samples. These samples were then allowed to continue incubating for a total 24 hours. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) were used to visualize all samples for the presence and quantification of C. acnes adherence at each time period. Subsequent transition to biofilm formation on these samples was assessed via SEM at each time period. RESULTS: The PEEK specimens exhibited the highest amount of surface biological burden in the first 24 hours compared to the other materials, which displayed little or no adherence. Rapid biofilm formation first observed at 8 hours of allowed adhesion on PEEK, whereas no significant biofilm formation was seen on the other materials during the observed time period. CONCLUSIONS: Although C. acnes is known to have a slow proliferation rate, the results of this investigation demonstrate that it can rapidly adhere to and form biofilm on PEEK. These data suggest that the use of PEEK implants placed during spinal surgery may facilitate early intraoperative colonization, and subsequent infection, compared to metallic implants. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: The findings of this study suggest that PEEK may prove to be problematic as a choice of implant material in cases were C. acnes infection is a possibility. SN - 1878-1632 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/31972305/Early_Adherence_and_Biofilm_Formation_of_Cutibacterium_acnes_(formerly_Propionibacterium_acnes)_On_Spinal_Implant_Materials L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1529-9430(20)30001-2 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -