Automated Insulin Delivery in Adults.Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 2020 03; 49(1):167-178.EM
Hybrid closed-loop (artificial pancreas) systems have recently been introduced into clinical practice for adults with type 1 diabetes. This reflects successful translation from research studies in highly supervised settings to evaluation of the technology in free-living home settings. We review the different closed-loop approaches and the key clinical evidence supporting adoption of hybrid closed-loop systems for adults with type 1 diabetes. We also discuss the growing evidence for automated insulin delivery in pregnant women and in hospitalized patients with hyperglycemia. We consider the psychosocial impact of closed-loop systems and the challenges and potential future advancements for automated insulin delivery.