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Alcohol Advertising and Violence.
Am J Prev Med. 2020 03; 58(3):343-351.AJ

Abstract

INTRODUCTION

Numerous studies have found associations between alcohol outlet density and violence, but it is unknown whether alcohol advertisements visible outside outlets are also associated with violent crime. Baltimore City, MD enacted restrictions on retail alcohol establishment advertising practices as of June 5, 2017. This study examines the association between alcohol advertisements visible outside off-premise alcohol outlets and violent crime before this restriction.

METHODS

Outlet observations (n=683) were conducted in summer 2015, and violent crime data (n=24,085) were from June 5, 2015, through June 4, 2017. The number of violent crimes per square mile within 1,000 feet of outlets was summed using kernel density estimation. In 2018-2019, authors used mixed models with a Simes-Benjamini-Hochberg correction for multiple testing.

RESULTS

Roughly half (47%, n=267) of the outlets with complete data (n=572) had alcohol advertisements visible from the exterior. Outlets with alcohol advertisements had 15% more violent crimes per square mile within 1,000 feet (eβ=1.15, 95% CI=1.07, 1.25, q<0.001) after adjusting for neighborhood context. All associations between alcohol advertisements and specific types of violent crime were significant, with the association strongest for homicides (eβ=1.28, 95% CI=1.13, 1.46, q<0.001). There was no association between cigarette advertisements and violent crime (eB=1.08, 95% CI=0.92, 1.26, q=0.43).

CONCLUSIONS

Alcohol advertisements visible outside off-premise outlets were associated with increased violent crime over and above the association between the outlets themselves and violent crime. Reducing alcohol advertising visible from the street may decrease risk of violent crime that is associated with alcohol outlets.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Health Behavior, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina; Department of Health Law, Policy, and Management, Boston University School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts. Electronic address: ptrang@email.unc.edu.Department of Health, Behavior, and Society, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland.National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland.Department of Mental Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland; Michigan State University College of Human Medicine, Flint, Michigan.Department of Mental Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland; Michigan State University College of Human Medicine, Flint, Michigan.Department of Health Law, Policy, and Management, Boston University School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

Language

eng

PubMed ID

31980304

Citation

Trangenstein, Pamela J., et al. "Alcohol Advertising and Violence." American Journal of Preventive Medicine, vol. 58, no. 3, 2020, pp. 343-351.
Trangenstein PJ, Greene N, Eck RH, et al. Alcohol Advertising and Violence. Am J Prev Med. 2020;58(3):343-351.
Trangenstein, P. J., Greene, N., Eck, R. H., Milam, A. J., Furr-Holden, C. D., & Jernigan, D. H. (2020). Alcohol Advertising and Violence. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 58(3), 343-351. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2019.10.024
Trangenstein PJ, et al. Alcohol Advertising and Violence. Am J Prev Med. 2020;58(3):343-351. PubMed PMID: 31980304.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Alcohol Advertising and Violence. AU - Trangenstein,Pamela J, AU - Greene,Naomi, AU - Eck,Raimee H, AU - Milam,Adam J, AU - Furr-Holden,C Debra, AU - Jernigan,David H, Y1 - 2020/01/21/ PY - 2019/06/26/received PY - 2019/10/23/revised PY - 2019/10/24/accepted PY - 2021/03/01/pmc-release PY - 2020/1/26/pubmed PY - 2020/1/26/medline PY - 2020/1/26/entrez SP - 343 EP - 351 JF - American journal of preventive medicine JO - Am J Prev Med VL - 58 IS - 3 N2 - INTRODUCTION: Numerous studies have found associations between alcohol outlet density and violence, but it is unknown whether alcohol advertisements visible outside outlets are also associated with violent crime. Baltimore City, MD enacted restrictions on retail alcohol establishment advertising practices as of June 5, 2017. This study examines the association between alcohol advertisements visible outside off-premise alcohol outlets and violent crime before this restriction. METHODS: Outlet observations (n=683) were conducted in summer 2015, and violent crime data (n=24,085) were from June 5, 2015, through June 4, 2017. The number of violent crimes per square mile within 1,000 feet of outlets was summed using kernel density estimation. In 2018-2019, authors used mixed models with a Simes-Benjamini-Hochberg correction for multiple testing. RESULTS: Roughly half (47%, n=267) of the outlets with complete data (n=572) had alcohol advertisements visible from the exterior. Outlets with alcohol advertisements had 15% more violent crimes per square mile within 1,000 feet (eβ=1.15, 95% CI=1.07, 1.25, q<0.001) after adjusting for neighborhood context. All associations between alcohol advertisements and specific types of violent crime were significant, with the association strongest for homicides (eβ=1.28, 95% CI=1.13, 1.46, q<0.001). There was no association between cigarette advertisements and violent crime (eB=1.08, 95% CI=0.92, 1.26, q=0.43). CONCLUSIONS: Alcohol advertisements visible outside off-premise outlets were associated with increased violent crime over and above the association between the outlets themselves and violent crime. Reducing alcohol advertising visible from the street may decrease risk of violent crime that is associated with alcohol outlets. SN - 1873-2607 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/31980304/Alcohol_Advertising_and_Violence_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0749-3797(19)30514-8 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -
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