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The Many Faces of Kefir Fermented Dairy Products: Quality Characteristics, Flavour Chemistry, Nutritional Value, Health Benefits, and Safety.
Nutrients. 2020 Jan 28; 12(2)N

Abstract

Kefir is a dairy product that can be prepared from different milk types, such as goat, buffalo, sheep, camel, or cow via microbial fermentation (inoculating milk with kefir grains). As such, kefir contains various bacteria and yeasts which influence its chemical and sensory characteristics. A mixture of two kinds of milk promotes kefir sensory and rheological properties aside from improving its nutritional value. Additives such as inulin can also enrich kefir's health qualities and organoleptic characters. Several metabolic products are generated during kefir production and account for its distinct flavour and aroma: Lactic acid, ethanol, carbon dioxide, and aroma compounds such as acetoin and acetaldehyde. During the storage process, microbiological, physicochemical, and sensory characteristics of kefir can further undergo changes, some of which improve its shelf life. Kefir exhibits many health benefits owing to its antimicrobial, anticancer, gastrointestinal tract effects, gut microbiota modulation and anti-diabetic effects. The current review presents the state of the art relating to the role of probiotics, prebiotics, additives, and different manufacturing practices in the context of kefir's physicochemical, sensory, and chemical properties. A review of kefir's many nutritional and health benefits, underlying chemistry and limitations for usage is presented.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Pharmacognosy Department, College of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Kasr El Aini St., P.B., Cairo 11562, Egypt. Chemistry Department, School of Sciences & Engineering, The American University in Cairo, New Cairo 11835, Egypt.Chemistry Department, School of Sciences & Engineering, The American University in Cairo, New Cairo 11835, Egypt.Department of Bee Research, Plant Protection Research Institute, Agricultural Research Centre, Giza 12627, Egypt. Pharmacognosy Group, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Uppsala University, Biomedical Centre, Box 574, SE-751 23 Uppsala, Sweden.Pharmacognosy Group, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Uppsala University, Biomedical Centre, Box 574, SE-751 23 Uppsala, Sweden. Al-Rayan Research and Innovation Center, Al-Rayan Colleges, Medina 42541, Saudi Arabia. International Research Center for Food Nutrition and Safety, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013, China. Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute, Stockholm University, SE 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

32013044

Citation

Farag, Mohamed A., et al. "The Many Faces of Kefir Fermented Dairy Products: Quality Characteristics, Flavour Chemistry, Nutritional Value, Health Benefits, and Safety." Nutrients, vol. 12, no. 2, 2020.
Farag MA, Jomaa SA, El-Wahed AA, et al. The Many Faces of Kefir Fermented Dairy Products: Quality Characteristics, Flavour Chemistry, Nutritional Value, Health Benefits, and Safety. Nutrients. 2020;12(2).
Farag, M. A., Jomaa, S. A., El-Wahed, A. A., & El-Seedi, A. H. R. (2020). The Many Faces of Kefir Fermented Dairy Products: Quality Characteristics, Flavour Chemistry, Nutritional Value, Health Benefits, and Safety. Nutrients, 12(2). https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12020346
Farag MA, et al. The Many Faces of Kefir Fermented Dairy Products: Quality Characteristics, Flavour Chemistry, Nutritional Value, Health Benefits, and Safety. Nutrients. 2020 Jan 28;12(2) PubMed PMID: 32013044.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - The Many Faces of Kefir Fermented Dairy Products: Quality Characteristics, Flavour Chemistry, Nutritional Value, Health Benefits, and Safety. AU - Farag,Mohamed A, AU - Jomaa,Suzan A, AU - El-Wahed,Aida Abd, AU - El-Seedi,And Hesham R, Y1 - 2020/01/28/ PY - 2019/10/26/received PY - 2020/01/14/revised PY - 2020/01/18/accepted PY - 2020/2/5/entrez PY - 2020/2/6/pubmed PY - 2020/2/6/medline KW - biological effects KW - composition KW - kefir KW - nutritional value KW - physicochemical properties KW - sensory characters JF - Nutrients JO - Nutrients VL - 12 IS - 2 N2 - Kefir is a dairy product that can be prepared from different milk types, such as goat, buffalo, sheep, camel, or cow via microbial fermentation (inoculating milk with kefir grains). As such, kefir contains various bacteria and yeasts which influence its chemical and sensory characteristics. A mixture of two kinds of milk promotes kefir sensory and rheological properties aside from improving its nutritional value. Additives such as inulin can also enrich kefir's health qualities and organoleptic characters. Several metabolic products are generated during kefir production and account for its distinct flavour and aroma: Lactic acid, ethanol, carbon dioxide, and aroma compounds such as acetoin and acetaldehyde. During the storage process, microbiological, physicochemical, and sensory characteristics of kefir can further undergo changes, some of which improve its shelf life. Kefir exhibits many health benefits owing to its antimicrobial, anticancer, gastrointestinal tract effects, gut microbiota modulation and anti-diabetic effects. The current review presents the state of the art relating to the role of probiotics, prebiotics, additives, and different manufacturing practices in the context of kefir's physicochemical, sensory, and chemical properties. A review of kefir's many nutritional and health benefits, underlying chemistry and limitations for usage is presented. SN - 2072-6643 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/32013044/The_Many_Faces_of_Kefir_Fermented_Dairy_Products:_Quality_Characteristics,_Flavour_Chemistry,_Nutritional_Value,_Health_Benefits,_and_Safety L2 - https://www.mdpi.com/resolver?pii=nu12020346 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -
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