Vitamin D status, cognitive decline and incident dementia: the Canadian Study of Health and Aging.Can J Public Health. 2020 06; 111(3):312-321.CJ
Vitamin D could prevent cognitive decline because of its neuroprotective, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. This study aimed to evaluate the associations of plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations with global cognitive function and incident dementia, including Alzheimer's disease (AD).
The Canadian Study of Health and Aging is a 10-year cohort study of a representative sample of individuals aged 65 years or older. A total of 661 subjects initially without dementia with frozen blood samples and follow-up data were included. Global cognitive function was measured using the validated Modified Mini-Mental State (3MS) examination. A consensus diagnosis of all-cause dementia and AD was made between the physician and the neuropsychologist according to published criteria. Cognitive decline for a 5-year increase in age at specific 25(OH)D concentrations was obtained using linear mixed models with repeated measures. Hazard ratios of incident dementia and AD were obtained using semi-parametric proportional hazards models with age as time scale.
Over a mean follow-up of 5.4 years, 141 subjects developed dementia of which 100 were AD. Overall, no significant association was found between 25(OH)D and cognitive decline, dementia or AD. Higher 25(OH)D concentrations were associated with an increased risk of dementia and AD in women, but not in men.
This study does not support a protective effect of vitamin D status on cognitive function. Further research is needed to clarify the relation by sex.