Bisphenol A induces a shift in sex differentiation gene expression with testis-ova or sex reversal in Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes).J Appl Toxicol. 2020 06; 40(6):804-814.JA
Bisphenol A (BPA), a very important raw material in the plastics industry, is an endocrine-disrupting chemical in teleost fish. Although BPA induces testis-ova and sex reversal in teleost fish species, the molecular mechanism remains unclear. We evaluated the effects of BPA (measured concentrations: 45, 92, 326, 1030 and 3406 μg/L) on Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) using OECD TG234 (2011, Fish Sexual Development Test, OECD Guidelines for the Testing of Chemicals, Section 2). BPA at 1030 and 3406 μg/L induced testis-ova and sex reversal with female-type secondary sexual characteristics in XY males at 30 and 60 days posthatching (dph). Then we examined the BPA effect on the expression of sex differentiation genes related to the testis-ova and sex reversal in XY medaka. BPA exposure (1030 and 3406 μg/L) suppressed gsdf mRNA expression and increased cyp19a1a mRNA expression in XY individuals at stage 38 and 30 dph, although foxl2 mRNA expression showed no change. Interestingly, the concentration of BPA that suppressed gsdf mRNA expression at the larval stage was consistent with that needed to induce testis-ova and sex reversal. These results suggest that the gsdf gene at the embryonic stage can be used as a useful biomarker for predicting the impact of estrogenic endocrine-disrupting chemicals on sexual differentiation in Japanese medaka.