The evolutionary history of the cellophane bee genus Colletes Latreille (Hymenoptera: Colletidae): Molecular phylogeny, biogeography and implications for a global infrageneric classification.Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2020 05; 146:106750.MP
Colletes Latreille (Hymenoptera: Colletidae) is a diverse genus with 518 valid species distributed in all biogeographic realms, except Australasia and Antarctica. Here we provide a comprehensive dated phylogeny for Colletes based on Bayesian and maximum likelihood-based analyses of DNA sequence data of six loci: 28S rDNA, cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1, elongation factor-1α copy F2, long-wavelength rhodopsin, RNA polymerase II and wingless. In total, our multilocus matrix consists of 4824 aligned base pairs for 143 species, including 112 Colletes species plus 31 outgroups (one stenotritid and a diverse array of colletids representing all subfamilies). Overall, analyses of each of the six single-locus datasets resulted in poorly resolved consensus trees with conflicting phylogenetic signal. However, our analyses of the multilocus matrix provided strong support for the monophyly of Colletes and show that it can be subdivided into five major clades. The implications of our phylogenetic results for future attempts at infrageneric classification for the Colletes of the world are discussed. We propose species groups for the Neotropical species of Colletes, the only major biogeographic realm for which no species groups have been proposed to date. Our dating analysis indicated that Colletes diverged from its sister taxon, Hemicotelles Toro and Cabezas, in the early Oligocene and that its extant lineages began diversifying only in the late Oligocene. According to our biogeographic reconstruction, Colletes originated in the Neotropics (most likely within South America) and then spread to the Nearctic very early in its evolutionary history. Geodispersal to the Old World occurred soon after colonization of the Northern Hemisphere. Lastly, the historical biogeography of Colletes is analyzed in light of available geological and palaeoenvironmental data.