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Presence of CTXs in moray eels and dusky groupers in the marine environment of the Canary Islands.
Aquat Toxicol. 2020 Apr; 221:105427.AT

Abstract

Local population frequently consumes moray eels and dusky groupers from the Canary Islands. These species are top predators and the interactions between them include predation but also, in some cases, collaborative hunting. These fish are well known to cause ciguatera (CFP) outbreaks in several marine areas such as Japan, Hawaii, French Polynesia and Caribe. Groupers have been involved in CFP events in the Canary Islands, however, moray eels have not yet been well studied in this regard. The present research seeks to describe the finding of a black moray in the stomach of a positive dusky grouper during its necropsy, and to clarify the implication of groupers and moray eels in the food webs, accumulating CTXs in the Canarian environment. The study also updates statistics on the presence of toxic groupers in this archipelago. For these purposes, 248 grouper samples from the CFP official control in the Canary Islands (2018-2019) were analysed and 36 moray eels (5 species) were collected under the EuroCigua project and one was obtained during a dusky grouper necropsy. All samples were analysed with the Neuro-2a cell-based assay (CBA) to evidence CTX-like toxicity. Regarding the necropsied grouper and the moray eel found in its stomach content, the LCMS/MS method allowed the identification and quantification of CCTX1 in both fish at similar levels while none of the P-CTXs for which standards were available were detected. Among groupers, 25.4 % displayed CTX-like toxicity with differences between islands. For moray eels 38.9 % showed toxicity, involving 4 species. Black moray exhibited a high proportion of positives (9/12) and a positive correlation was found between CTX-like toxicity quantification and the black moray weight. Regarding the grouper, and the moray eel found in its stomach, the LCMS/MS method allowed the identification and quantification of C-CTX1 in both fish at similar levels. This found suggests a trophic interaction between these species and their role in maintaining CTXs in the Canary waters where local population commonly demand those species for consumption. The island of El Hierro stands out above all the other Canary Islands with the concerning percentage of positive grouper samples and the high CTX toxicity levels obtained in moray eel specimens analysed in this marine area. This is the first report of CTX-like toxicity in flesh of moray eels fished in the Canary archipelago and the confirmation of the presence of C-CTX1 by LCMS/MS in a black moray from this marine area.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Division of Fish Health and Pathology, University Institute of Animal Health and Food Safety (IUSA), University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, 35416 Arucas, Las Palmas, Spain.Division of Fish Health and Pathology, University Institute of Animal Health and Food Safety (IUSA), University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, 35416 Arucas, Las Palmas, Spain. Electronic address: natalia.garcia@ulpgc.es.Division of Fish Health and Pathology, University Institute of Animal Health and Food Safety (IUSA), University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, 35416 Arucas, Las Palmas, Spain.University of Vigo, Department of Analytical and Food Chemistry, Campus Universitario de Vigo, 36310 Vigo, Spain.University of Vigo, Department of Analytical and Food Chemistry, Campus Universitario de Vigo, 36310 Vigo, Spain; European Union Reference Laboratory for Marine Biotoxins, CITEXVI, Campus Universitario de Vigo, 36310 Vigo, Spain.Canary Health Service, Directorate-General for Public Health, Canary Islands, Spain.Division of Fish Health and Pathology, University Institute of Animal Health and Food Safety (IUSA), University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, 35416 Arucas, Las Palmas, Spain.Division of Fish Health and Pathology, University Institute of Animal Health and Food Safety (IUSA), University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, 35416 Arucas, Las Palmas, Spain.Marine and Continental Waters Environmental Monitoring, IRTA, Ctra. Poble Nou, km 5.5, 43540 Sant Carles de la Ràpita, Spain.Division of Fish Health and Pathology, University Institute of Animal Health and Food Safety (IUSA), University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, 35416 Arucas, Las Palmas, Spain.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

32044545

Citation

Sanchez-Henao, Andres, et al. "Presence of CTXs in Moray Eels and Dusky Groupers in the Marine Environment of the Canary Islands." Aquatic Toxicology (Amsterdam, Netherlands), vol. 221, 2020, p. 105427.
Sanchez-Henao A, García-Álvarez N, Silva Sergent F, et al. Presence of CTXs in moray eels and dusky groupers in the marine environment of the Canary Islands. Aquat Toxicol. 2020;221:105427.
Sanchez-Henao, A., García-Álvarez, N., Silva Sergent, F., Estévez, P., Gago-Martínez, A., Martín, F., Ramos-Sosa, M., Fernández, A., Diogène, J., & Real, F. (2020). Presence of CTXs in moray eels and dusky groupers in the marine environment of the Canary Islands. Aquatic Toxicology (Amsterdam, Netherlands), 221, 105427. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquatox.2020.105427
Sanchez-Henao A, et al. Presence of CTXs in Moray Eels and Dusky Groupers in the Marine Environment of the Canary Islands. Aquat Toxicol. 2020;221:105427. PubMed PMID: 32044545.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Presence of CTXs in moray eels and dusky groupers in the marine environment of the Canary Islands. AU - Sanchez-Henao,Andres, AU - García-Álvarez,Natalia, AU - Silva Sergent,Freddy, AU - Estévez,Pablo, AU - Gago-Martínez,Ana, AU - Martín,Francisco, AU - Ramos-Sosa,María, AU - Fernández,Antonio, AU - Diogène,Jorge, AU - Real,Fernando, Y1 - 2020/01/31/ PY - 2019/10/24/received PY - 2020/01/21/revised PY - 2020/01/30/accepted PY - 2020/2/12/pubmed PY - 2020/5/12/medline PY - 2020/2/12/entrez KW - Canary Islands KW - Ciguatoxin KW - Dusky grouper KW - Moray eel SP - 105427 EP - 105427 JF - Aquatic toxicology (Amsterdam, Netherlands) JO - Aquat Toxicol VL - 221 N2 - Local population frequently consumes moray eels and dusky groupers from the Canary Islands. These species are top predators and the interactions between them include predation but also, in some cases, collaborative hunting. These fish are well known to cause ciguatera (CFP) outbreaks in several marine areas such as Japan, Hawaii, French Polynesia and Caribe. Groupers have been involved in CFP events in the Canary Islands, however, moray eels have not yet been well studied in this regard. The present research seeks to describe the finding of a black moray in the stomach of a positive dusky grouper during its necropsy, and to clarify the implication of groupers and moray eels in the food webs, accumulating CTXs in the Canarian environment. The study also updates statistics on the presence of toxic groupers in this archipelago. For these purposes, 248 grouper samples from the CFP official control in the Canary Islands (2018-2019) were analysed and 36 moray eels (5 species) were collected under the EuroCigua project and one was obtained during a dusky grouper necropsy. All samples were analysed with the Neuro-2a cell-based assay (CBA) to evidence CTX-like toxicity. Regarding the necropsied grouper and the moray eel found in its stomach content, the LCMS/MS method allowed the identification and quantification of CCTX1 in both fish at similar levels while none of the P-CTXs for which standards were available were detected. Among groupers, 25.4 % displayed CTX-like toxicity with differences between islands. For moray eels 38.9 % showed toxicity, involving 4 species. Black moray exhibited a high proportion of positives (9/12) and a positive correlation was found between CTX-like toxicity quantification and the black moray weight. Regarding the grouper, and the moray eel found in its stomach, the LCMS/MS method allowed the identification and quantification of C-CTX1 in both fish at similar levels. This found suggests a trophic interaction between these species and their role in maintaining CTXs in the Canary waters where local population commonly demand those species for consumption. The island of El Hierro stands out above all the other Canary Islands with the concerning percentage of positive grouper samples and the high CTX toxicity levels obtained in moray eel specimens analysed in this marine area. This is the first report of CTX-like toxicity in flesh of moray eels fished in the Canary archipelago and the confirmation of the presence of C-CTX1 by LCMS/MS in a black moray from this marine area. SN - 1879-1514 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/32044545/Presence_of_CTXs_in_moray_eels_and_dusky_groupers_in_the_marine_environment_of_the_Canary_Islands_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0166-445X(19)30885-9 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -