Goethite-modified biochar ameliorates the growth of rice (Oryza sativa L.) plants by suppressing Cd and As-induced oxidative stress in Cd and As co-contaminated paddy soil.Sci Total Environ. 2020 May 15; 717:137086.ST
Co-contamination of soils with cadmium (Cd) and arsenic (As) in rice growing areas is a serious threat to environment and human health. Increase in soil Cd and As levels curtail the growth and development of rice plants by causing oxidative stress and reduction in photosynthetic activity. Therefore, it is necessary to formulate and evaluate different strategies for minimizing the Cd and As uptake in rice plant. We modified biochar (BC) with goethite and assessed the effects of goethite-modified biochar (GB) application on mitigating Cd and As stress in rice plant. Although BC supply to rice plants enhanced their performance in contaminated soil but application of different GB levels i.e.1.5% GB to the soil resulted in prominent improvements in physiological and biochemical attributes of rice plants grown in Cd and As co-contaminated paddy soil. It was observed that soil amendment with GB increased the plant growth, biomass, photosynthetic pigments, gas exchange attribute of rice plant and suppressed the oxidative stress in rice leaves and roots by increased antioxidant enzymes activities. Supplementing the soil with 1.5% GB incremented the iron plaque (Fe-plaque) formation and enhanced the Cd and As sequestration by Fe-plaque. Application of GB (1.5%) significantly improved the Fe content of Fe-plaque by 68.7%. Maximum Cd (1.57 mg kg-1) and As (0.85 mg kg-1) sequestration by Fe-plaque was observed with 1.5% GB treatment. Compared to the control, 1.5% GB treatment application prominently reduced the Cd content in the rice roots and shoots by 42.9%, and 56.7%, respectively and As content in the rice roots and shoots declined by 32.2%, 46.6%, respectively, compared to the control. These findings demonstrate that amending the soil with 1.5% GB can be a potential remediation strategy for checking Cd and As accumulation, reducing oxidative stress and increasing the growth of rice plant.