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Important roles of dietary taurine, creatine, carnosine, anserine and 4-hydroxyproline in human nutrition and health.
Amino Acids. 2020 Mar; 52(3):329-360.AA

Abstract

Taurine (a sulfur-containing β-amino acid), creatine (a metabolite of arginine, glycine and methionine), carnosine (a dipeptide; β-alanyl-L-histidine), and 4-hydroxyproline (an imino acid; also often referred to as an amino acid) were discovered in cattle, and the discovery of anserine (a methylated product of carnosine; β-alanyl-1-methyl-L-histidine) also originated with cattle. These five nutrients are highly abundant in beef, and have important physiological roles in anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory reactions, as well as neurological, muscular, retinal, immunological and cardiovascular function. Of particular note, taurine, carnosine, anserine, and creatine are absent from plants, and hydroxyproline is negligible in many plant-source foods. Consumption of 30 g dry beef can fully meet daily physiological needs of the healthy 70-kg adult human for taurine and carnosine, and can also provide large amounts of creatine, anserine and 4-hydroxyproline to improve human nutrition and health, including metabolic, retinal, immunological, muscular, cartilage, neurological, and cardiovascular health. The present review provides the public with the much-needed knowledge of nutritionally and physiologically significant amino acids, dipeptides and creatine in animal-source foods (including beef). Dietary taurine, creatine, carnosine, anserine and 4-hydroxyproline are beneficial for preventing and treating obesity, cardiovascular dysfunction, and ageing-related disorders, as well as inhibiting tumorigenesis, improving skin and bone health, ameliorating neurological abnormalities, and promoting well being in infants, children and adults. Furthermore, these nutrients may promote the immunological defense of humans against infections by bacteria, fungi, parasites, and viruses (including coronavirus) through enhancing the metabolism and functions of monocytes, macrophages, and other cells of the immune system. Red meat (including beef) is a functional food for optimizing human growth, development and health.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Animal Science and Faculty of Nutrition, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, 77843-2471, USA. g-wu@tamu.edu.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

32072297

Citation

Wu, Guoyao. "Important Roles of Dietary Taurine, Creatine, Carnosine, Anserine and 4-hydroxyproline in Human Nutrition and Health." Amino Acids, vol. 52, no. 3, 2020, pp. 329-360.
Wu G. Important roles of dietary taurine, creatine, carnosine, anserine and 4-hydroxyproline in human nutrition and health. Amino Acids. 2020;52(3):329-360.
Wu, G. (2020). Important roles of dietary taurine, creatine, carnosine, anserine and 4-hydroxyproline in human nutrition and health. Amino Acids, 52(3), 329-360. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00726-020-02823-6
Wu G. Important Roles of Dietary Taurine, Creatine, Carnosine, Anserine and 4-hydroxyproline in Human Nutrition and Health. Amino Acids. 2020;52(3):329-360. PubMed PMID: 32072297.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Important roles of dietary taurine, creatine, carnosine, anserine and 4-hydroxyproline in human nutrition and health. A1 - Wu,Guoyao, Y1 - 2020/02/18/ PY - 2019/10/25/received PY - 2020/01/29/accepted PY - 2020/2/20/pubmed PY - 2020/9/17/medline PY - 2020/2/20/entrez KW - Amino acids KW - Creatine KW - Function KW - Health KW - Metabolites KW - Peptides SP - 329 EP - 360 JF - Amino acids JO - Amino Acids VL - 52 IS - 3 N2 - Taurine (a sulfur-containing β-amino acid), creatine (a metabolite of arginine, glycine and methionine), carnosine (a dipeptide; β-alanyl-L-histidine), and 4-hydroxyproline (an imino acid; also often referred to as an amino acid) were discovered in cattle, and the discovery of anserine (a methylated product of carnosine; β-alanyl-1-methyl-L-histidine) also originated with cattle. These five nutrients are highly abundant in beef, and have important physiological roles in anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory reactions, as well as neurological, muscular, retinal, immunological and cardiovascular function. Of particular note, taurine, carnosine, anserine, and creatine are absent from plants, and hydroxyproline is negligible in many plant-source foods. Consumption of 30 g dry beef can fully meet daily physiological needs of the healthy 70-kg adult human for taurine and carnosine, and can also provide large amounts of creatine, anserine and 4-hydroxyproline to improve human nutrition and health, including metabolic, retinal, immunological, muscular, cartilage, neurological, and cardiovascular health. The present review provides the public with the much-needed knowledge of nutritionally and physiologically significant amino acids, dipeptides and creatine in animal-source foods (including beef). Dietary taurine, creatine, carnosine, anserine and 4-hydroxyproline are beneficial for preventing and treating obesity, cardiovascular dysfunction, and ageing-related disorders, as well as inhibiting tumorigenesis, improving skin and bone health, ameliorating neurological abnormalities, and promoting well being in infants, children and adults. Furthermore, these nutrients may promote the immunological defense of humans against infections by bacteria, fungi, parasites, and viruses (including coronavirus) through enhancing the metabolism and functions of monocytes, macrophages, and other cells of the immune system. Red meat (including beef) is a functional food for optimizing human growth, development and health. SN - 1438-2199 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/32072297/Important_roles_of_dietary_taurine_creatine_carnosine_anserine_and_4_hydroxyproline_in_human_nutrition_and_health_ L2 - https://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00726-020-02823-6 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -
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