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Abundance and Updated Distribution of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) in Cabo Verde Archipelago: A Neglected Threat to Public Health.
Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020 02 17; 17(4)IJ

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Mosquito-borne viruses, such as Zika, dengue, yellow fever, and chikungunya, are important causes of human diseases nearly worldwide. The greatest health risk for arboviral disease outbreaks is the presence of the most competent and highly invasive domestic mosquito, Aedes aegypti. In Cabo Verde, two recent arbovirus outbreaks were reported, a dengue outbreak in 2009, followed by a Zika outbreak in 2015. This study is the first entomological survey for Ae. aegypti that includes all islands of Cabo Verde archipelago, in which we aim to evaluate the actual risk of vector-borne arboviruses as a continuous update of the geographical distribution of this species.

METHODS

In order to assess its current distribution and abundance, we undertook a mosquito larval survey in the nine inhabited islands of Cabo Verde from November 2018 to May 2019. Entomological larval survey indices were calculated, and the abundance analyzed. We collected and identified 4045 Ae. aegypti mosquitoes from 264 positive breeding sites in 22 municipalities and confirmed the presence of Ae. aegypti in every inhabited island. Results: Water drums were found to be the most prevalent containers (n = 3843; 62.9%), but puddles (n = 27; 0.4%) were the most productive habitats found. The overall average of the House, Container, and Breteau larval indices were 8.4%, 4.4%, and 10.9, respectively. However, 15 out of the 22 municipalities showed that the Breteau Index was above the epidemic risk threshold.

CONCLUSION

These results suggest that if no vector control measures are considered to be in place, the risk of new arboviral outbreaks in Cabo Verde is high. The vector control strategy adopted must include measures of public health directed to domestic water storage and management.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Laboratório de Entomologia Médica, Instituto Nacional de Saúde Pública, Largo do Desastre da Assistência, Chã de Areia, Praia 719, Cabo Verde.Laboratório de Entomologia Médica, Instituto Nacional de Saúde Pública, Largo do Desastre da Assistência, Chã de Areia, Praia 719, Cabo Verde.Laboratório de Entomologia Médica, Instituto Nacional de Saúde Pública, Largo do Desastre da Assistência, Chã de Areia, Praia 719, Cabo Verde.Laboratório de Entomologia Médica, Instituto Nacional de Saúde Pública, Largo do Desastre da Assistência, Chã de Areia, Praia 719, Cabo Verde.Laboratório de Entomologia Médica, Instituto Nacional de Saúde Pública, Largo do Desastre da Assistência, Chã de Areia, Praia 719, Cabo Verde.Laboratório de Entomologia Médica, Instituto Nacional de Saúde Pública, Largo do Desastre da Assistência, Chã de Areia, Praia 719, Cabo Verde.Programa de Pré-Eliminação do Paludismo, CCS-SIDA, Ministério da Saúde e da Segurança Social, Varzea, Praia 855, Cabo Verde.Instituto Nacional de Saúde Doutor Ricardo Jorge, Centro de Estudos de Vectores e Doenças Infecciosas, Avenida da Liberdade 5, 2965-575 Águas de Moura, Portugal. Instituto de Saúde Ambiental, Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Prof. Egas Moniz, Ed. Egas Moniz, Piso 0, Ala C, 1649-028 Lisboa, Portugal.Instituto Nacional de Saúde Doutor Ricardo Jorge, Centro de Estudos de Vectores e Doenças Infecciosas, Avenida da Liberdade 5, 2965-575 Águas de Moura, Portugal. Instituto de Saúde Ambiental, Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Prof. Egas Moniz, Ed. Egas Moniz, Piso 0, Ala C, 1649-028 Lisboa, Portugal.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

32079356

Citation

Leal, Silvânia Da Veiga, et al. "Abundance and Updated Distribution of Aedes Aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) in Cabo Verde Archipelago: a Neglected Threat to Public Health." International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, vol. 17, no. 4, 2020.
Leal SDV, Fernandes Varela IB, Lopes Gonçalves AAL, et al. Abundance and Updated Distribution of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) in Cabo Verde Archipelago: A Neglected Threat to Public Health. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020;17(4).
Leal, S. D. V., Fernandes Varela, I. B., Lopes Gonçalves, A. A. L., Sousa Monteiro, D. D., Ramos de Sousa, C. M., Lima Mendonça, M. D. L., De Pina, A. J., Alves, M. J., & Osório, H. C. (2020). Abundance and Updated Distribution of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) in Cabo Verde Archipelago: A Neglected Threat to Public Health. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(4). https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17041291
Leal SDV, et al. Abundance and Updated Distribution of Aedes Aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) in Cabo Verde Archipelago: a Neglected Threat to Public Health. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020 02 17;17(4) PubMed PMID: 32079356.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Abundance and Updated Distribution of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) in Cabo Verde Archipelago: A Neglected Threat to Public Health. AU - Leal,Silvânia Da Veiga, AU - Fernandes Varela,Isaias Baptista, AU - Lopes Gonçalves,Aderitow Augusto Lopes, AU - Sousa Monteiro,Davidson Daniel, AU - Ramos de Sousa,Celivianne Marisia, AU - Lima Mendonça,Maria da Luz, AU - De Pina,Adilson José, AU - Alves,Maria João, AU - Osório,Hugo Costa, Y1 - 2020/02/17/ PY - 2019/11/27/received PY - 2019/12/06/revised PY - 2019/12/08/accepted PY - 2020/2/22/entrez PY - 2020/2/23/pubmed PY - 2020/7/14/medline KW - Aedes aegypti KW - Cabo Verde KW - arboviruses KW - control KW - larval index KW - surveillance JF - International journal of environmental research and public health JO - Int J Environ Res Public Health VL - 17 IS - 4 N2 - BACKGROUND: Mosquito-borne viruses, such as Zika, dengue, yellow fever, and chikungunya, are important causes of human diseases nearly worldwide. The greatest health risk for arboviral disease outbreaks is the presence of the most competent and highly invasive domestic mosquito, Aedes aegypti. In Cabo Verde, two recent arbovirus outbreaks were reported, a dengue outbreak in 2009, followed by a Zika outbreak in 2015. This study is the first entomological survey for Ae. aegypti that includes all islands of Cabo Verde archipelago, in which we aim to evaluate the actual risk of vector-borne arboviruses as a continuous update of the geographical distribution of this species. METHODS: In order to assess its current distribution and abundance, we undertook a mosquito larval survey in the nine inhabited islands of Cabo Verde from November 2018 to May 2019. Entomological larval survey indices were calculated, and the abundance analyzed. We collected and identified 4045 Ae. aegypti mosquitoes from 264 positive breeding sites in 22 municipalities and confirmed the presence of Ae. aegypti in every inhabited island. Results: Water drums were found to be the most prevalent containers (n = 3843; 62.9%), but puddles (n = 27; 0.4%) were the most productive habitats found. The overall average of the House, Container, and Breteau larval indices were 8.4%, 4.4%, and 10.9, respectively. However, 15 out of the 22 municipalities showed that the Breteau Index was above the epidemic risk threshold. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that if no vector control measures are considered to be in place, the risk of new arboviral outbreaks in Cabo Verde is high. The vector control strategy adopted must include measures of public health directed to domestic water storage and management. SN - 1660-4601 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/32079356/Abundance_and_Updated_Distribution_of_Aedes_aegypti__Diptera:_Culicidae__in_Cabo_Verde_Archipelago:_A_Neglected_Threat_to_Public_Health_ L2 - https://www.mdpi.com/resolver?pii=ijerph17041291 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -