Incidence of and Risk Factors Associated With Vocal Fold Hemorrhage Following Type I Thyroplasty With Gore-Tex Implant.J Voice. 2020 Feb 17 [Online ahead of print]JV
The objectives of this study were to determine the rate of hemorrhage following type I thyroplasty performed exclusively with Gore-Tex implant and to define whether age, comorbidities, anticoagulation therapy, presence of vocal fold ectasia, and operative technique are associated with increased incidence of hemorrhage.
Medical charts of 86 patients who underwent type I thyroplasty with Gore-Tex implant between the years 2013 and 2019 were reviewed retrospectively and divided into two groups based on presence or absence of postoperative vocal fold hemorrhage. Patients were examined on the day following surgery. Hemorrhage was defined as any submucosal erythema on the vocal fold even when isolated to the superior surface. Age, sex, medical comorbidities, preoperative medications with specific attention to anticoagulation therapy, American Society of Anesthesiology score (all procedures were performed under local anesthesia with sedation), operative notes, and pre- and poststroboscopy exams were compared between groups. Statistical analyses were done using Chi-Square (χ 2) Analysis and Student's t test. P values were considered statistically significant at the P < 0.05 level.
The rate of hemorrhage was 22.3%. There was a statistically significant difference in incidence of hemorrhage associated with a vocal fold varix on preoperative stroboscopic exam and history of discontinued anticoagulation therapy (1-week preoperatively). No difference was found for the other parameters studied.
Presence of vocal fold varix or ectasia and preoperative use of anticoagulation or antiplatelet therapy are associated with an increased risk of hemorrhage following type I Thyroplasty with Gore-Tex implant.