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The SARS, MERS and novel coronavirus (COVID-19) epidemics, the newest and biggest global health threats: what lessons have we learned?
Int J Epidemiol. 2020 06 01; 49(3):717-726.IJ

Abstract

OBJECTIVES

To provide an overview of the three major deadly coronaviruses and identify areas for improvement of future preparedness plans, as well as provide a critical assessment of the risk factors and actionable items for stopping their spread, utilizing lessons learned from the first two deadly coronavirus outbreaks, as well as initial reports from the current novel coronavirus (COVID-19) epidemic in Wuhan, China.

METHODS

Utilizing the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, USA) website, and a comprehensive review of PubMed literature, we obtained information regarding clinical signs and symptoms, treatment and diagnosis, transmission methods, protection methods and risk factors for Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and COVID-19. Comparisons between the viruses were made.

RESULTS

Inadequate risk assessment regarding the urgency of the situation, and limited reporting on the virus within China has, in part, led to the rapid spread of COVID-19 throughout mainland China and into proximal and distant countries. Compared with SARS and MERS, COVID-19 has spread more rapidly, due in part to increased globalization and the focus of the epidemic. Wuhan, China is a large hub connecting the North, South, East and West of China via railways and a major international airport. The availability of connecting flights, the timing of the outbreak during the Chinese (Lunar) New Year, and the massive rail transit hub located in Wuhan has enabled the virus to perforate throughout China, and eventually, globally.

CONCLUSIONS

We conclude that we did not learn from the two prior epidemics of coronavirus and were ill-prepared to deal with the challenges the COVID-19 epidemic has posed. Future research should attempt to address the uses and implications of internet of things (IoT) technologies for mapping the spread of infection.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, University of North Texas Health Science Center, Fort Worth, TX, USA.Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, University of North Texas Health Science Center, Fort Worth, TX, USA.Department of Statistics, Begum Rokeya University, Rangpur, Bangladesh.Centre for Epidemiology and Evidence-based Practice, Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, University of North Texas Health Science Center, Fort Worth, TX, USA.Department of Biology, National University of Medical Sciences, Rawalpindi, Pakistan.Department of Business Development, Ofogh Kourosh Chain Stores, Tehran, Iran.Centre for Occupational and Environmental Health, Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.Center for Disease Surveillance and Research, Center for Disease Control and Prevention of PLA, Beijing, People's Republic of China.Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, University of North Texas Health Science Center, Fort Worth, TX, USA.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

32086938

Citation

Peeri, Noah C., et al. "The SARS, MERS and Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) Epidemics, the Newest and Biggest Global Health Threats: what Lessons Have We Learned?" International Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 49, no. 3, 2020, pp. 717-726.
Peeri NC, Shrestha N, Rahman MS, et al. The SARS, MERS and novel coronavirus (COVID-19) epidemics, the newest and biggest global health threats: what lessons have we learned? Int J Epidemiol. 2020;49(3):717-726.
Peeri, N. C., Shrestha, N., Rahman, M. S., Zaki, R., Tan, Z., Bibi, S., Baghbanzadeh, M., Aghamohammadi, N., Zhang, W., & Haque, U. (2020). The SARS, MERS and novel coronavirus (COVID-19) epidemics, the newest and biggest global health threats: what lessons have we learned? International Journal of Epidemiology, 49(3), 717-726. https://doi.org/10.1093/ije/dyaa033
Peeri NC, et al. The SARS, MERS and Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) Epidemics, the Newest and Biggest Global Health Threats: what Lessons Have We Learned. Int J Epidemiol. 2020 06 1;49(3):717-726. PubMed PMID: 32086938.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - The SARS, MERS and novel coronavirus (COVID-19) epidemics, the newest and biggest global health threats: what lessons have we learned? AU - Peeri,Noah C, AU - Shrestha,Nistha, AU - Rahman,Md Siddikur, AU - Zaki,Rafdzah, AU - Tan,Zhengqi, AU - Bibi,Saana, AU - Baghbanzadeh,Mahdi, AU - Aghamohammadi,Nasrin, AU - Zhang,Wenyi, AU - Haque,Ubydul, PY - 2020/02/10/received PY - 2020/02/12/accepted PY - 2020/2/23/pubmed PY - 2020/8/11/medline PY - 2020/2/23/entrez KW - COVID-19 KW - Coronavirus KW - MERS KW - SARS KW - epidemic KW - epidemiology KW - nCoV KW - outbreak SP - 717 EP - 726 JF - International journal of epidemiology JO - Int J Epidemiol VL - 49 IS - 3 N2 - OBJECTIVES: To provide an overview of the three major deadly coronaviruses and identify areas for improvement of future preparedness plans, as well as provide a critical assessment of the risk factors and actionable items for stopping their spread, utilizing lessons learned from the first two deadly coronavirus outbreaks, as well as initial reports from the current novel coronavirus (COVID-19) epidemic in Wuhan, China. METHODS: Utilizing the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, USA) website, and a comprehensive review of PubMed literature, we obtained information regarding clinical signs and symptoms, treatment and diagnosis, transmission methods, protection methods and risk factors for Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and COVID-19. Comparisons between the viruses were made. RESULTS: Inadequate risk assessment regarding the urgency of the situation, and limited reporting on the virus within China has, in part, led to the rapid spread of COVID-19 throughout mainland China and into proximal and distant countries. Compared with SARS and MERS, COVID-19 has spread more rapidly, due in part to increased globalization and the focus of the epidemic. Wuhan, China is a large hub connecting the North, South, East and West of China via railways and a major international airport. The availability of connecting flights, the timing of the outbreak during the Chinese (Lunar) New Year, and the massive rail transit hub located in Wuhan has enabled the virus to perforate throughout China, and eventually, globally. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that we did not learn from the two prior epidemics of coronavirus and were ill-prepared to deal with the challenges the COVID-19 epidemic has posed. Future research should attempt to address the uses and implications of internet of things (IoT) technologies for mapping the spread of infection. SN - 1464-3685 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/32086938/The_SARS_MERS_and_novel_coronavirus__COVID_19__epidemics_the_newest_and_biggest_global_health_threats:_what_lessons_have_we_learned L2 - https://academic.oup.com/ije/article-lookup/doi/10.1093/ije/dyaa033 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -