Pelvic inflammatory diseases: Updated French guidelines.J Gynecol Obstet Hum Reprod. 2020 May; 49(5):101714.JG
Pelvic inflammatory diseases (PID) must be suspected when spontaneous pelvic pain is associated with induced adnexal or uterine pain (grade B). Pelvic ultrasonography is necessary to rule out tubo-ovarian abscess (TOA) (grade C). Microbiological diagnosis requires endocervical and TOA sampling for molecular and bacteriological analysis (grade B). First-line treatment for uncomplicated PID combines ceftriaxone 1 g, once, IM or IV, doxycycline 100 mg ×2/day, and metronidazole 500 mg ×2/day PO for 10 days (grade A). First-line treatment for complicated PID combines IV ceftriaxone 1-2 g/day until clinical improvement, doxycycline 100 mg ×2/day, IV or PO, and metronidazole 500 mg ×3/day, IV or PO for 14 days (grade B). Drainage of TOA is indicated if the pelvic fluid collection measures more than 3 cm (grade B). Follow-up is required in women with sexually transmitted infections (STIs) (grade C). The use of condoms is recommended (grade B). Vaginal sampling for microbiological diagnosis is recommended 3-6 months after PID (grade C), before the insertion of an intrauterine device (grade B), and before elective termination of pregnancy or hysterosalpingography. When specific bacteria are identified, antibiotics targeted at them are preferable to systematic antibiotic prophylaxis.