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2019-nCoV (Wuhan virus), a novel Coronavirus: human-to-human transmission, travel-related cases, and vaccine readiness.
J Infect Dev Ctries. 2020 01 31; 14(1):3-17.JI

Abstract

On 31 December 2019 the Wuhan Health Commission reported a cluster of atypical pneumonia cases that was linked to a wet market in the city of Wuhan, China. The first patients began experiencing symptoms of illness in mid-December 2019. Clinical isolates were found to contain a novel coronavirus with similarity to bat coronaviruses. As of 28 January 2020, there are in excess of 4,500 laboratory-confirmed cases, with > 100 known deaths. As with the SARS-CoV, infections in children appear to be rare. Travel-related cases have been confirmed in multiple countries and regions outside mainland China including Germany, France, Thailand, Japan, South Korea, Vietnam, Canada, and the United States, as well as Hong Kong and Taiwan. Domestically in China, the virus has also been noted in several cities and provinces with cases in all but one provinence. While zoonotic transmission appears to be the original source of infections, the most alarming development is that human-to-human transmission is now prevelant. Of particular concern is that many healthcare workers have been infected in the current epidemic. There are several critical clinical questions that need to be resolved, including how efficient is human-to-human transmission? What is the animal reservoir? Is there an intermediate animal reservoir? Do the vaccines generated to the SARS-CoV or MERS-CoV or their proteins offer protection against 2019-nCoV? We offer a research perspective on the next steps for the generation of vaccines. We also present data on the use of in silico docking in gaining insight into 2019-nCoV Spike-receptor binding to aid in therapeutic development. Diagnostic PCR protocols can be found at https://www.who.int/health-topics/coronavirus/laboratory-diagnostics-for-novel-coronavirus.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Vaccine and Infectious Disease Organization - International Vaccine Centre (VIDO-InterVac), Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada. robyn.ralph@usask.ca.Vaccine and Infectious Disease Organization - International Vaccine Centre (VIDO-InterVac), Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada. jocelyne.lew@usask.ca.International Institute of Infection and Immunity, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou, Guangdong, China. allenzengts@126.com.Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. m.francis@dal.ca.International Institute of Infection and Immunity, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou, Guangdong, China. bz520251@dal.ca.Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. melissa.rioux@dal.ca.Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. Ali.Toloue@dal.ca.Sezione di Microbiologia Sperimentale e Clinica, Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche, Università degli Studi di Sassari, Sassari, Italy. rubino@uniss.it.Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. nc350339@dal.ca.Department of Infection and Immunity, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. profahdal@gmail.com.International Institute of Infection and Immunity, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou, Guangdong, China. dkelvin@jidc.org.Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. chris.richardson@dal.ca.Laboratory of Emerging and Re-Emerging Viruses, Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. kjk1642@gmail.com.Vaccine and Infectious Disease Organization - International Vaccine Centre (VIDO-InterVac), Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada. darryl.falzarano@usask.ca.Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. akelvin@jidc.org.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

Language

eng

PubMed ID

32088679

Citation

Ralph, Robyn, et al. "2019-nCoV (Wuhan Virus), a Novel Coronavirus: Human-to-human Transmission, Travel-related Cases, and Vaccine Readiness." Journal of Infection in Developing Countries, vol. 14, no. 1, 2020, pp. 3-17.
Ralph R, Lew J, Zeng T, et al. 2019-nCoV (Wuhan virus), a novel Coronavirus: human-to-human transmission, travel-related cases, and vaccine readiness. J Infect Dev Ctries. 2020;14(1):3-17.
Ralph, R., Lew, J., Zeng, T., Francis, M., Xue, B., Roux, M., Toloue Ostadgavahi, A., Rubino, S., Dawe, N. J., Al-Ahdal, M. N., Kelvin, D. J., Richardson, C. D., Kindrachuk, J., Falzarano, D., & Kelvin, A. A. (2020). 2019-nCoV (Wuhan virus), a novel Coronavirus: human-to-human transmission, travel-related cases, and vaccine readiness. Journal of Infection in Developing Countries, 14(1), 3-17. https://doi.org/10.3855/jidc.12425
Ralph R, et al. 2019-nCoV (Wuhan Virus), a Novel Coronavirus: Human-to-human Transmission, Travel-related Cases, and Vaccine Readiness. J Infect Dev Ctries. 2020 01 31;14(1):3-17. PubMed PMID: 32088679.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - 2019-nCoV (Wuhan virus), a novel Coronavirus: human-to-human transmission, travel-related cases, and vaccine readiness. AU - Ralph,Robyn, AU - Lew,Jocelyne, AU - Zeng,Tiansheng, AU - Francis,Magie, AU - Xue,Bei, AU - Roux,Melissa, AU - Toloue Ostadgavahi,Ali, AU - Rubino,Salvatore, AU - Dawe,Nicholas J, AU - Al-Ahdal,Mohammed N, AU - Kelvin,David J, AU - Richardson,Christopher D, AU - Kindrachuk,Jason, AU - Falzarano,Darryl, AU - Kelvin,Alyson Anne, Y1 - 2020/01/31/ PY - 2020/01/20/received PY - 2020/01/23/accepted PY - 2020/2/24/entrez PY - 2020/2/24/pubmed PY - 2020/3/19/medline KW - 2019-nCoV KW - Wuhan KW - coronavirus KW - human-to-human transmission KW - vaccine readiness SP - 3 EP - 17 JF - Journal of infection in developing countries JO - J Infect Dev Ctries VL - 14 IS - 1 N2 - On 31 December 2019 the Wuhan Health Commission reported a cluster of atypical pneumonia cases that was linked to a wet market in the city of Wuhan, China. The first patients began experiencing symptoms of illness in mid-December 2019. Clinical isolates were found to contain a novel coronavirus with similarity to bat coronaviruses. As of 28 January 2020, there are in excess of 4,500 laboratory-confirmed cases, with > 100 known deaths. As with the SARS-CoV, infections in children appear to be rare. Travel-related cases have been confirmed in multiple countries and regions outside mainland China including Germany, France, Thailand, Japan, South Korea, Vietnam, Canada, and the United States, as well as Hong Kong and Taiwan. Domestically in China, the virus has also been noted in several cities and provinces with cases in all but one provinence. While zoonotic transmission appears to be the original source of infections, the most alarming development is that human-to-human transmission is now prevelant. Of particular concern is that many healthcare workers have been infected in the current epidemic. There are several critical clinical questions that need to be resolved, including how efficient is human-to-human transmission? What is the animal reservoir? Is there an intermediate animal reservoir? Do the vaccines generated to the SARS-CoV or MERS-CoV or their proteins offer protection against 2019-nCoV? We offer a research perspective on the next steps for the generation of vaccines. We also present data on the use of in silico docking in gaining insight into 2019-nCoV Spike-receptor binding to aid in therapeutic development. Diagnostic PCR protocols can be found at https://www.who.int/health-topics/coronavirus/laboratory-diagnostics-for-novel-coronavirus. SN - 1972-2680 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/32088679/2019_nCoV__Wuhan_virus__a_novel_Coronavirus:_human_to_human_transmission_travel_related_cases_and_vaccine_readiness_ L2 - http://www.jidc.org/index.php/journal/article/view/32088679 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -