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The Virophage Family Lavidaviridae.
Curr Issues Mol Biol. 2021; 40:1-24.CI

Abstract

Double-stranded (ds) DNA viruses of the family Lavidaviridae, commonly known as virophages, are a fascinating group of eukaryotic viruses that depend on a coinfecting giant dsDNA virus of the Mimiviridae for their propagation. Instead of replicating in the nucleus, virophages multiply in the cytoplasmic virion factory of a coinfecting giant virus inside a phototrophic or heterotrophic protistal host cell. Virophages are parasites of giant viruses and can inhibit their replication, which may lead to increased survival rates of the infected host cell population. The genomes of virophages are 17-33 kilobase pairs (kbp) long and encode 16-34 proteins. Genetic signatures of virophages can be found in metagenomic datasets from various saltwater and freshwater environments around the planet. Most virophages share a set of conserved genes that code for a major and a minor capsid protein, a cysteine protease, a genome-packaging ATPase, and a superfamily 3 helicase, although the genomes are otherwise diverse and variable. Lavidaviruses share genes with other mobile genetic elements, suggesting that horizontal gene transfer and recombination have been major forces in shaping these viral genomes. Integrases are occasionally found in virophage genomes and enable these DNA viruses to persist as provirophages in the chromosomes of their viral and cellular hosts. As we watch the genetic diversity of this new viral family unfold through metagenomics, additional isolates are still lacking and critical questions regarding their infection cycle, host range, and ecology remain to be answered.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Biomolecular Mechanisms, Max Planck Institute for Medical Research, Heidelberg, Germany.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

32089519

Citation

Fischer, Matthias G.. "The Virophage Family Lavidaviridae." Current Issues in Molecular Biology, vol. 40, 2021, pp. 1-24.
Fischer MG. The Virophage Family Lavidaviridae. Curr Issues Mol Biol. 2021;40:1-24.
Fischer, M. G. (2021). The Virophage Family Lavidaviridae. Current Issues in Molecular Biology, 40, 1-24. https://doi.org/10.21775/cimb.040.001
Fischer MG. The Virophage Family Lavidaviridae. Curr Issues Mol Biol. 2021;40:1-24. PubMed PMID: 32089519.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - The Virophage Family Lavidaviridae. A1 - Fischer,Matthias G, Y1 - 2020/02/24/ PY - 2020/2/25/pubmed PY - 2021/10/29/medline PY - 2020/2/25/entrez SP - 1 EP - 24 JF - Current issues in molecular biology JO - Curr Issues Mol Biol VL - 40 N2 - Double-stranded (ds) DNA viruses of the family Lavidaviridae, commonly known as virophages, are a fascinating group of eukaryotic viruses that depend on a coinfecting giant dsDNA virus of the Mimiviridae for their propagation. Instead of replicating in the nucleus, virophages multiply in the cytoplasmic virion factory of a coinfecting giant virus inside a phototrophic or heterotrophic protistal host cell. Virophages are parasites of giant viruses and can inhibit their replication, which may lead to increased survival rates of the infected host cell population. The genomes of virophages are 17-33 kilobase pairs (kbp) long and encode 16-34 proteins. Genetic signatures of virophages can be found in metagenomic datasets from various saltwater and freshwater environments around the planet. Most virophages share a set of conserved genes that code for a major and a minor capsid protein, a cysteine protease, a genome-packaging ATPase, and a superfamily 3 helicase, although the genomes are otherwise diverse and variable. Lavidaviruses share genes with other mobile genetic elements, suggesting that horizontal gene transfer and recombination have been major forces in shaping these viral genomes. Integrases are occasionally found in virophage genomes and enable these DNA viruses to persist as provirophages in the chromosomes of their viral and cellular hosts. As we watch the genetic diversity of this new viral family unfold through metagenomics, additional isolates are still lacking and critical questions regarding their infection cycle, host range, and ecology remain to be answered. SN - 1467-3045 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/32089519/The_Virophage_Family_Lavidaviridae_ L2 - https://www.mdpi.com/resolver?pii=v40/1 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -