Haven or Limbo? Neuroscientist Refugees From National Socialism Escape to Illinois.J Child Neurol. 2020 05; 35(6):398-403.JC
At least 9 neuroscientists immigrated from Nazi Europe to Illinois to escape tyranny and attempt to re-establish their careers. Some work has been published in print on eponymous neuroscientist Adolf Wallenberg, as well as 2 others but not on Ernst Haase, Frederick Hiller, Erich Liebert, Bruno Volk, Heinz (Henry) von Witzleben, or Gerhard Pisk. Before leaving Germany or Austria, these downtrodden specialists were dismissed from long-held posts sometimes for trumped-up charges, stripped of their financial security, and forced to leave relatives behind. At least 1 left only for personal and political, but not because of racial, reasons. Illinois, in exemplary fashion, welcomed these unfortunate survivors more than many other states because of limited licensing requirements, numerous opportunities at state hospitals, and special internship programs. Some of them successfully continued their research agendas and published, taught neurology students and trainees, and added to the expansion of neurologic care in Illinois or elsewhere, but most of them took years to reacquire the academic rank they lost and never regained their career momentum. These refugees survived and passed on some of their extensive training and expertise to a new generation of neuroscientists in America, but not without significant cost.