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The deadly coronaviruses: The 2003 SARS pandemic and the 2020 novel coronavirus epidemic in China.
J Autoimmun. 2020 05; 109:102434.JA

Abstract

The 2019-nCoV is officially called SARS-CoV-2 and the disease is named COVID-19. This viral epidemic in China has led to the deaths of over 1800 people, mostly elderly or those with an underlying chronic disease or immunosuppressed state. This is the third serious Coronavirus outbreak in less than 20 years, following SARS in 2002-2003 and MERS in 2012. While human strains of Coronavirus are associated with about 15% of cases of the common cold, the SARS-CoV-2 may present with varying degrees of severity, from flu-like symptoms to death. It is currently believed that this deadly Coronavirus strain originated from wild animals at the Huanan market in Wuhan, a city in Hubei province. Bats, snakes and pangolins have been cited as potential carriers based on the sequence homology of CoV isolated from these animals and the viral nucleic acids of the virus isolated from SARS-CoV-2 infected patients. Extreme quarantine measures, including sealing off large cities, closing borders and confining people to their homes, were instituted in January 2020 to prevent spread of the virus, but by that time much of the damage had been done, as human-human transmission became evident. While these quarantine measures are necessary and have prevented a historical disaster along the lines of the Spanish flu, earlier recognition and earlier implementation of quarantine measures may have been even more effective. Lessons learned from SARS resulted in faster determination of the nucleic acid sequence and a more robust quarantine strategy. However, it is clear that finding an effective antiviral and developing a vaccine are still significant challenges. The costs of the epidemic are not limited to medical aspects, as the virus has led to significant sociological, psychological and economic effects globally. Unfortunately, emergence of SARS-CoV-2 has led to numerous reports of Asians being subjected to racist behavior and hate crimes across the world.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Allergy & Clinical Immunology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Peking Union Medical College & Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, National Clinical Research Center for Immunologic Diseases, Beijing, 100730, China.Center for Systems Medicine, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, 100005, China; Suzhou Institute of Systems Medicine, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123, China.Department of Respiratory Diseases, The Second Medical Center & National Clinical Research Center for Geriatric Diseases, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, 100853, China.No affiliation info availableDepartment of Allergy & Clinical Immunology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Peking Union Medical College & Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, National Clinical Research Center for Immunologic Diseases, Beijing, 100730, China.Center for Systems Medicine, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, 100005, China; Suzhou Institute of Systems Medicine, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123, China. Electronic address: taijiao@ibms.pumc.edu.cn.Department of Infection Prevention and Disease Control, The Second Medical Center & National Clinical Research Center for Geriatric Diseases, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, 100853, China. Electronic address: guogang_xu@qq.com.Department of Allergy & Clinical Immunology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Peking Union Medical College & Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, National Clinical Research Center for Immunologic Diseases, Beijing, 100730, China. Electronic address: sunjinlv@pumch.cn.Division of Rheumatology, Allergy and Clinical Immunology, University of California, Davis, Davis, CA, 95616, USA; Division of Pediatric Immunology and Allergy, Joe DiMaggio Children's Hospital, Hollywood, FL, USA. Electronic address: chrchang@ucdavis.edu.

Pub Type(s)

Historical Article
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

32143990

Citation

Yang, Yongshi, et al. "The Deadly Coronaviruses: the 2003 SARS Pandemic and the 2020 Novel Coronavirus Epidemic in China." Journal of Autoimmunity, vol. 109, 2020, p. 102434.
Yang Y, Peng F, Wang R, et al. The deadly coronaviruses: The 2003 SARS pandemic and the 2020 novel coronavirus epidemic in China. J Autoimmun. 2020;109:102434.
Yang, Y., Peng, F., Wang, R., Yange, ., Guan, K., Jiang, T., Xu, G., Sun, J., & Chang, C. (2020). The deadly coronaviruses: The 2003 SARS pandemic and the 2020 novel coronavirus epidemic in China. Journal of Autoimmunity, 109, 102434. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaut.2020.102434
Yang Y, et al. The Deadly Coronaviruses: the 2003 SARS Pandemic and the 2020 Novel Coronavirus Epidemic in China. J Autoimmun. 2020;109:102434. PubMed PMID: 32143990.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - The deadly coronaviruses: The 2003 SARS pandemic and the 2020 novel coronavirus epidemic in China. AU - Yang,Yongshi, AU - Peng,Fujun, AU - Wang,Runsheng, AU - Yange,Ming, AU - Guan,Kai, AU - Jiang,Taijiao, AU - Xu,Guogang, AU - Sun,Jinlyu, AU - Chang,Christopher, Y1 - 2020/03/03/ PY - 2020/02/19/received PY - 2020/02/22/revised PY - 2020/02/22/accepted PY - 2020/3/8/pubmed PY - 2020/4/16/medline PY - 2020/3/8/entrez KW - Bats KW - Coronavirus KW - Epidemic KW - Epidemiology KW - Flu KW - Human to human transmission KW - Pandemic KW - Pneumonia KW - Pyroptosis KW - SARS-CoV KW - SARS-CoV-2 SP - 102434 EP - 102434 JF - Journal of autoimmunity JO - J Autoimmun VL - 109 N2 - The 2019-nCoV is officially called SARS-CoV-2 and the disease is named COVID-19. This viral epidemic in China has led to the deaths of over 1800 people, mostly elderly or those with an underlying chronic disease or immunosuppressed state. This is the third serious Coronavirus outbreak in less than 20 years, following SARS in 2002-2003 and MERS in 2012. While human strains of Coronavirus are associated with about 15% of cases of the common cold, the SARS-CoV-2 may present with varying degrees of severity, from flu-like symptoms to death. It is currently believed that this deadly Coronavirus strain originated from wild animals at the Huanan market in Wuhan, a city in Hubei province. Bats, snakes and pangolins have been cited as potential carriers based on the sequence homology of CoV isolated from these animals and the viral nucleic acids of the virus isolated from SARS-CoV-2 infected patients. Extreme quarantine measures, including sealing off large cities, closing borders and confining people to their homes, were instituted in January 2020 to prevent spread of the virus, but by that time much of the damage had been done, as human-human transmission became evident. While these quarantine measures are necessary and have prevented a historical disaster along the lines of the Spanish flu, earlier recognition and earlier implementation of quarantine measures may have been even more effective. Lessons learned from SARS resulted in faster determination of the nucleic acid sequence and a more robust quarantine strategy. However, it is clear that finding an effective antiviral and developing a vaccine are still significant challenges. The costs of the epidemic are not limited to medical aspects, as the virus has led to significant sociological, psychological and economic effects globally. Unfortunately, emergence of SARS-CoV-2 has led to numerous reports of Asians being subjected to racist behavior and hate crimes across the world. SN - 1095-9157 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/32143990/The_deadly_coronaviruses:_The_2003_SARS_pandemic_and_the_2020_novel_coronavirus_epidemic_in_China_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0896-8411(20)30047-0 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -