Development of an easy-to-use colorimetric pH label with starch and carrot anthocyanins for milk shelf life assessment.Int J Biol Macromol. 2020 Jun 15; 153:240-247.IJ
An intelligent freshness indicator was developed by immobilizing anthocyanins of black carrot (ABC) within the starch matrix (total anthocyanins content of 10 mg/100 mL) to monitor freshness/spoilage of milk. The microstructural, spectral, swelling and solubility properties as well as color stability (as a function of time, temperature and light) of the indicator at different pHs were characterized. The incorporation of ABC did not change the swelling index and water solubility. The prepared label showed visible color changes as a function of pH and excellent color stability after one month storage at different conditions. The total color difference (TCD) value of the indicator corresponded to the pH, acidity, and microbial growth of the pasteurized milk. The Pearson correlation coefficient showed a high correlation between TCD and pH (R = -0.979), while a high and positive correlation between TCD and acidity as well as TMC (R = 0.983 and 0.968, respectively) was observed. The developed label can discriminate fresh milk form the milk entered into the initial (TCD: 7.8 after 24 h) and final (TCD: 34.8 after 48 h) steps of spoilage. The fabricated label opens a new perspective to use anthocyanins-incorporated biopolymers in the milk intelligent packaging as a simple and easy-to-use freshness indicator.