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Immediate Psychological Responses and Associated Factors during the Initial Stage of the 2019 Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Epidemic among the General Population in China.
Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020 03 06; 17(5)IJ

Abstract

Background: The 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) epidemic is a public health emergency of international concern and poses a challenge to psychological resilience. Research data are needed to develop evidence-driven strategies to reduce adverse psychological impacts and psychiatric symptoms during the epidemic. The aim of this study was to survey the general public in China to better understand their levels of psychological impact, anxiety, depression, and stress during the initial stage of the COVID-19 outbreak. The data will be used for future reference. Methods: From 31 January to 2 February 2020, we conducted an online survey using snowball sampling techniques. The online survey collected information on demographic data, physical symptoms in the past 14 days, contact history with COVID-19, knowledge and concerns about COVID-19, precautionary measures against COVID-19, and additional information required with respect to COVID-19. Psychological impact was assessed by the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R), and mental health status was assessed by the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21). Results: This study included 1210 respondents from 194 cities in China. In total, 53.8% of respondents rated the psychological impact of the outbreak as moderate or severe; 16.5% reported moderate to severe depressive symptoms; 28.8% reported moderate to severe anxiety symptoms; and 8.1% reported moderate to severe stress levels. Most respondents spent 20-24 h per day at home (84.7%); were worried about their family members contracting COVID-19 (75.2%); and were satisfied with the amount of health information available (75.1%). Female gender, student status, specific physical symptoms (e.g., myalgia, dizziness, coryza), and poor self-rated health status were significantly associated with a greater psychological impact of the outbreak and higher levels of stress, anxiety, and depression (p < 0.05). Specific up-to-date and accurate health information (e.g., treatment, local outbreak situation) and particular precautionary measures (e.g., hand hygiene, wearing a mask) were associated with a lower psychological impact of the outbreak and lower levels of stress, anxiety, and depression (p < 0.05). Conclusions: During the initial phase of the COVID-19 outbreak in China, more than half of the respondents rated the psychological impact as moderate-to-severe, and about one-third reported moderate-to-severe anxiety. Our findings identify factors associated with a lower level of psychological impact and better mental health status that can be used to formulate psychological interventions to improve the mental health of vulnerable groups during the COVID-19 epidemic.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, Faculty of Education, Huaibei Normal University, Huaibei 235000, China.Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, Faculty of Education, Huaibei Normal University, Huaibei 235000, China.Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, Faculty of Education, Huaibei Normal University, Huaibei 235000, China.Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, Faculty of Education, Huaibei Normal University, Huaibei 235000, China.Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, Faculty of Education, Huaibei Normal University, Huaibei 235000, China.Department of Psychological Medicine, National University Health System, Kent Ridge 119228, Singapore. Department of Psychological Medicine, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Kent Ridge 119228, Singapore.Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, Faculty of Education, Huaibei Normal University, Huaibei 235000, China. Department of Psychological Medicine, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Kent Ridge 119228, Singapore. Institute of Health Innovation and Technology (iHealthtech), National University of Singapore, Kent Ridge 119077, Singapore.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

32155789

Citation

Wang, Cuiyan, et al. "Immediate Psychological Responses and Associated Factors During the Initial Stage of the 2019 Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Epidemic Among the General Population in China." International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, vol. 17, no. 5, 2020.
Wang C, Pan R, Wan X, et al. Immediate Psychological Responses and Associated Factors during the Initial Stage of the 2019 Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Epidemic among the General Population in China. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020;17(5).
Wang, C., Pan, R., Wan, X., Tan, Y., Xu, L., Ho, C. S., & Ho, R. C. (2020). Immediate Psychological Responses and Associated Factors during the Initial Stage of the 2019 Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Epidemic among the General Population in China. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(5). https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17051729
Wang C, et al. Immediate Psychological Responses and Associated Factors During the Initial Stage of the 2019 Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Epidemic Among the General Population in China. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020 03 6;17(5) PubMed PMID: 32155789.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Immediate Psychological Responses and Associated Factors during the Initial Stage of the 2019 Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Epidemic among the General Population in China. AU - Wang,Cuiyan, AU - Pan,Riyu, AU - Wan,Xiaoyang, AU - Tan,Yilin, AU - Xu,Linkang, AU - Ho,Cyrus S, AU - Ho,Roger C, Y1 - 2020/03/06/ PY - 2020/02/14/received PY - 2020/02/28/revised PY - 2020/03/03/accepted PY - 2020/3/12/entrez PY - 2020/3/12/pubmed PY - 2020/3/19/medline KW - anxiety KW - coronavirus KW - depression KW - epidemic KW - knowledge KW - precaution KW - psychological impact KW - respiratory symptoms KW - stress JF - International journal of environmental research and public health JO - Int J Environ Res Public Health VL - 17 IS - 5 N2 - Background: The 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) epidemic is a public health emergency of international concern and poses a challenge to psychological resilience. Research data are needed to develop evidence-driven strategies to reduce adverse psychological impacts and psychiatric symptoms during the epidemic. The aim of this study was to survey the general public in China to better understand their levels of psychological impact, anxiety, depression, and stress during the initial stage of the COVID-19 outbreak. The data will be used for future reference. Methods: From 31 January to 2 February 2020, we conducted an online survey using snowball sampling techniques. The online survey collected information on demographic data, physical symptoms in the past 14 days, contact history with COVID-19, knowledge and concerns about COVID-19, precautionary measures against COVID-19, and additional information required with respect to COVID-19. Psychological impact was assessed by the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R), and mental health status was assessed by the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21). Results: This study included 1210 respondents from 194 cities in China. In total, 53.8% of respondents rated the psychological impact of the outbreak as moderate or severe; 16.5% reported moderate to severe depressive symptoms; 28.8% reported moderate to severe anxiety symptoms; and 8.1% reported moderate to severe stress levels. Most respondents spent 20-24 h per day at home (84.7%); were worried about their family members contracting COVID-19 (75.2%); and were satisfied with the amount of health information available (75.1%). Female gender, student status, specific physical symptoms (e.g., myalgia, dizziness, coryza), and poor self-rated health status were significantly associated with a greater psychological impact of the outbreak and higher levels of stress, anxiety, and depression (p < 0.05). Specific up-to-date and accurate health information (e.g., treatment, local outbreak situation) and particular precautionary measures (e.g., hand hygiene, wearing a mask) were associated with a lower psychological impact of the outbreak and lower levels of stress, anxiety, and depression (p < 0.05). Conclusions: During the initial phase of the COVID-19 outbreak in China, more than half of the respondents rated the psychological impact as moderate-to-severe, and about one-third reported moderate-to-severe anxiety. Our findings identify factors associated with a lower level of psychological impact and better mental health status that can be used to formulate psychological interventions to improve the mental health of vulnerable groups during the COVID-19 epidemic. SN - 1660-4601 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/32155789/Immediate_Psychological_Responses_and_Associated_Factors_during_the_Initial_Stage_of_the_2019_Coronavirus_Disease__COVID_19__Epidemic_among_the_General_Population_in_China_ L2 - https://www.mdpi.com/resolver?pii=ijerph17051729 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -