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Creating mosquito-free outdoor spaces using transfluthrin-treated chairs and ribbons.
Malar J. 2020 Mar 10; 19(1):109.MJ

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Residents of malaria-endemic communities spend several hours outdoors performing different activities, e.g. cooking, story-telling or eating, thereby exposing themselves to potentially-infectious mosquitoes. This compromises effectiveness of indoor interventions, notably long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS). This study characterized common peri-domestic spaces in rural south-eastern Tanzania, and assessed protective efficacy against mosquitoes of hessian fabric mats and ribbons treated with the spatial repellent, transfluthrin, and fitted to chairs and outdoor kitchens, respectively.

METHODS

Two hundred households were surveyed, and their most-used peri-domestic spaces physically characterized. Protective efficacies of locally-made transfluthrin-emanating chairs and hessian ribbons were tested in outdoor environments of 28 households in dry and wet seasons, using volunteer-occupied exposure-free double net traps. CDC light traps were used to estimate host-seeking mosquito densities within open-structure outdoor kitchens. Field-collected Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles funestus mosquitoes were exposed underneath the chairs to estimate 24 h-mortality. Finally, The World Health Organization insecticide susceptibility tests were conducted on wild-caught Anopheles from the villages.

RESULTS

Approximately half (52%) of houses had verandas. Aside from these verandas, most houses also had peri-domestic spaces where residents stayed most times (67% of houses with verandas and 94% of non-veranda houses). Two-thirds of these spaces were sited under trees, and only one third (34.4%) were built-up. The outdoor structures were usually makeshift kitchens having roofs and partial walls. Transfluthrin-treated chairs reduced outdoor-biting An. arabiensis densities by 70-85%, while transfluthrin-treated hessian ribbons fitted to the outdoor kitchens caused 77-81% reduction in the general peri-domestic area. Almost all the field-collected An. arabiensis (99.4%) and An. funestus (100%) exposed under transfluthrin-treated chairs died. The An. arabiensis were susceptible to non-pyrethroids (pirimiphos methyl and bendiocarb), but resistant to pyrethroids commonly used on LLINs (deltamethrin and permethrin).

CONCLUSION

Most houses had actively-used peri-domestic outdoor spaces where exposure to mosquitoes occurred. The transfluthrin-treated chairs and ribbons reduced outdoor-biting malaria vectors in these peri-domestic spaces, and also elicited significant mortality among pyrethroid-resistant field-caught malaria vectors. These two new prototype formats for transfluthrin emanators, if developed further, may constitute new options for complementing LLINs and IRS with outdoor protection against malaria and other mosquito-borne pathogens in areas where peri-domestic human activities are common.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Environmental Health and Ecological Sciences Department, Ifakara Health Institute, Morogoro, United Republic of Tanzania. jpaliga@ihi.or.tz. School of Life Science and Biotechnology, Nelson Mandela African Institution of Science and Technology, Arusha, United Republic of Tanzania. jpaliga@ihi.or.tz.Environmental Health and Ecological Sciences Department, Ifakara Health Institute, Morogoro, United Republic of Tanzania. School of Public Health, University of the Witwatersrand, Parktown, Johannesburg, Republic of South Africa.Environmental Health and Ecological Sciences Department, Ifakara Health Institute, Morogoro, United Republic of Tanzania. Department of Vector Biology, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, UK.Environmental Health and Ecological Sciences Department, Ifakara Health Institute, Morogoro, United Republic of Tanzania. Institute of Biodiversity, Animal Health and Comparative Medicine, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK.Environmental Health and Ecological Sciences Department, Ifakara Health Institute, Morogoro, United Republic of Tanzania.Environmental Health and Ecological Sciences Department, Ifakara Health Institute, Morogoro, United Republic of Tanzania. School of Life Science and Biotechnology, Nelson Mandela African Institution of Science and Technology, Arusha, United Republic of Tanzania. School of Public Health, University of the Witwatersrand, Parktown, Johannesburg, Republic of South Africa. Institute of Biodiversity, Animal Health and Comparative Medicine, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

32156280

Citation

Masalu, John P., et al. "Creating Mosquito-free Outdoor Spaces Using Transfluthrin-treated Chairs and Ribbons." Malaria Journal, vol. 19, no. 1, 2020, p. 109.
Masalu JP, Finda M, Killeen GF, et al. Creating mosquito-free outdoor spaces using transfluthrin-treated chairs and ribbons. Malar J. 2020;19(1):109.
Masalu, J. P., Finda, M., Killeen, G. F., Ngowo, H. S., Pinda, P. G., & Okumu, F. O. (2020). Creating mosquito-free outdoor spaces using transfluthrin-treated chairs and ribbons. Malaria Journal, 19(1), 109. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12936-020-03180-1
Masalu JP, et al. Creating Mosquito-free Outdoor Spaces Using Transfluthrin-treated Chairs and Ribbons. Malar J. 2020 Mar 10;19(1):109. PubMed PMID: 32156280.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Creating mosquito-free outdoor spaces using transfluthrin-treated chairs and ribbons. AU - Masalu,John P, AU - Finda,Marceline, AU - Killeen,Gerry F, AU - Ngowo,Halfan S, AU - Pinda,Polius G, AU - Okumu,Fredros O, Y1 - 2020/03/10/ PY - 2019/12/22/received PY - 2020/03/02/accepted PY - 2020/3/12/entrez PY - 2020/3/12/pubmed PY - 2020/10/21/medline KW - Eave ribbons KW - Ifakara Health Institute KW - Malaria vectors KW - Outdoor-biting KW - Peri-domestic spaces KW - Spatial repellents KW - Transfluthrin KW - Transfluthrin-treated chairs SP - 109 EP - 109 JF - Malaria journal JO - Malar J VL - 19 IS - 1 N2 - BACKGROUND: Residents of malaria-endemic communities spend several hours outdoors performing different activities, e.g. cooking, story-telling or eating, thereby exposing themselves to potentially-infectious mosquitoes. This compromises effectiveness of indoor interventions, notably long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS). This study characterized common peri-domestic spaces in rural south-eastern Tanzania, and assessed protective efficacy against mosquitoes of hessian fabric mats and ribbons treated with the spatial repellent, transfluthrin, and fitted to chairs and outdoor kitchens, respectively. METHODS: Two hundred households were surveyed, and their most-used peri-domestic spaces physically characterized. Protective efficacies of locally-made transfluthrin-emanating chairs and hessian ribbons were tested in outdoor environments of 28 households in dry and wet seasons, using volunteer-occupied exposure-free double net traps. CDC light traps were used to estimate host-seeking mosquito densities within open-structure outdoor kitchens. Field-collected Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles funestus mosquitoes were exposed underneath the chairs to estimate 24 h-mortality. Finally, The World Health Organization insecticide susceptibility tests were conducted on wild-caught Anopheles from the villages. RESULTS: Approximately half (52%) of houses had verandas. Aside from these verandas, most houses also had peri-domestic spaces where residents stayed most times (67% of houses with verandas and 94% of non-veranda houses). Two-thirds of these spaces were sited under trees, and only one third (34.4%) were built-up. The outdoor structures were usually makeshift kitchens having roofs and partial walls. Transfluthrin-treated chairs reduced outdoor-biting An. arabiensis densities by 70-85%, while transfluthrin-treated hessian ribbons fitted to the outdoor kitchens caused 77-81% reduction in the general peri-domestic area. Almost all the field-collected An. arabiensis (99.4%) and An. funestus (100%) exposed under transfluthrin-treated chairs died. The An. arabiensis were susceptible to non-pyrethroids (pirimiphos methyl and bendiocarb), but resistant to pyrethroids commonly used on LLINs (deltamethrin and permethrin). CONCLUSION: Most houses had actively-used peri-domestic outdoor spaces where exposure to mosquitoes occurred. The transfluthrin-treated chairs and ribbons reduced outdoor-biting malaria vectors in these peri-domestic spaces, and also elicited significant mortality among pyrethroid-resistant field-caught malaria vectors. These two new prototype formats for transfluthrin emanators, if developed further, may constitute new options for complementing LLINs and IRS with outdoor protection against malaria and other mosquito-borne pathogens in areas where peri-domestic human activities are common. SN - 1475-2875 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/32156280/Creating_mosquito_free_outdoor_spaces_using_transfluthrin_treated_chairs_and_ribbons_ L2 - https://malariajournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12936-020-03180-1 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -