Prevalence estimates of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among visceral leishmaniasis infected people in Northwest Ethiopia: a systematic review and meta-analysis.BMC Infect Dis. 2020 Mar 12; 20(1):214.BI
In Ethiopia, by the end of 2018, an estimated 690,000 people are infected with HIV and the annual cases of Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) is estimated to be between 4000 and 5000 with over 3.2 million people are at risk. Northwest Ethiopia accounts for over 60% cases of VL in the country. Prevalence of HIV infection among VL infected people in Ethiopia has not yet been synthesized. Therefore, we aimed to estimate the pooled prevalence of HIV infection among VL infected people in Northwest Ethiopia with the hope that it would guide the development of a more robust and cost-effective intervention strategies.
In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we searched six international databases: PubMed, Ovid MEDLINE®, Embase, Scopus, Google Scholar, and ProQuest Dissertations & Theses. We also searched reference lists of included studies and Ethiopian universities electronic thesis and dissertation repositories. The search was performed until June 30,2019. Funnel plot symmetry visualization confirmed by Egger's regression asymmetry test and Begg rank correlation methods was used to assess publication bias. Pooled prevalence estimate was calculated using Der Simonian and Laird's random Effects model. We went further to perform univariate meta-regression and subgroup analysis to identify a possible sources of heterogeneity among the studies. STATA software (version 14, Texas, USA) was used for analysis.
From 1286 citations identified by our search, 19 relevant studies with 5355 VL infected individuals were included in this meta-analysis. The pooled prevalence of HIV infection among VL infected individuals in Northwest Ethiopia was 24% (95%CI: 17-30%). The result of sensitivity analysis demonstrated that the pooled prevalence estimate was robust and not one-study dependent. The pooled prevalence estimate of HIV infection among VL infected people in Northwest Ethiopia ranged from 20.88% (95%CI: 15.91-25.86) to 24.86% (95%CI: 18.57-31.14) after a single study was deleted.
The burden of HIV infection in people infected with VL in Northwest Ethiopia is considerably high. Integrating HIV/AIDS surveillance among VL infected people would improve case detection as well as prevention and control of disease spread.