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The Disease Ecology, Epidemiology, Clinical Manifestations, and Management of Trichinellosis Linked to Consumption of Wild Animal Meat.
Wilderness Environ Med. 2020 Jun; 31(2):235-244.WE

Abstract

Historically, human trichinellosis was caused by Trichinella spiralis and transmitted to humans by consumption of undercooked domestic pork. Today, most cases of trichinellosis are caused by other Trichinella species and transmitted by consumption of raw or undercooked wild game meats. Given the increasing global prevalence of wild animal meat-linked trichinellosis, the objectives of this review are: 1) to describe the life cycle and global distribution of Trichinella worms; 2) to describe the changing epidemiology of trichinellosis; 3) to describe the clinical phases of trichinellosis; 4) to recommend the latest diagnostic tests; and 5) to recommend treatment and prevention strategies. Internet search engines were queried with keywords as subject headings to meet the objectives of this review. Although trichinellosis surveillance systems and laws regulating commercial pork production have limited T spiralis-caused trichinellosis in Europe and the United States, trichinellosis due to consumption of raw and undercooked wild boar and feral hog meat continues to occur throughout Southeast Asia. Trichinellosis due to consumption of raw or undercooked meats of other infected game, such as bear, deer, moose, and walrus, continues to occur worldwide. Only adherence to hygienic practices when preparing wild game meats and cooking wild game meats to recommended internal temperatures can prevent transmission of trichinellosis to humans. Wilderness medicine clinicians should be prepared to advise hunters and the public on the risks of game meat-linked trichinellosis and on how to diagnose and treat trichinellosis to prevent fatal complications.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Program in Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, School of Public Health, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center (LSUHSC), New Orleans, LA. Electronic address: jdiaz@lsuhsc.edu.Program in Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, School of Public Health, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center (LSUHSC), New Orleans, LA.Program in Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, School of Public Health, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center (LSUHSC), New Orleans, LA; Louisiana State University School of Veterinary Medicine, Baton Rouge, LA.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

32169338

Citation

Diaz, James H., et al. "The Disease Ecology, Epidemiology, Clinical Manifestations, and Management of Trichinellosis Linked to Consumption of Wild Animal Meat." Wilderness & Environmental Medicine, vol. 31, no. 2, 2020, pp. 235-244.
Diaz JH, Warren RJ, Oster MJ. The Disease Ecology, Epidemiology, Clinical Manifestations, and Management of Trichinellosis Linked to Consumption of Wild Animal Meat. Wilderness Environ Med. 2020;31(2):235-244.
Diaz, J. H., Warren, R. J., & Oster, M. J. (2020). The Disease Ecology, Epidemiology, Clinical Manifestations, and Management of Trichinellosis Linked to Consumption of Wild Animal Meat. Wilderness & Environmental Medicine, 31(2), 235-244. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wem.2019.12.003
Diaz JH, Warren RJ, Oster MJ. The Disease Ecology, Epidemiology, Clinical Manifestations, and Management of Trichinellosis Linked to Consumption of Wild Animal Meat. Wilderness Environ Med. 2020;31(2):235-244. PubMed PMID: 32169338.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - The Disease Ecology, Epidemiology, Clinical Manifestations, and Management of Trichinellosis Linked to Consumption of Wild Animal Meat. AU - Diaz,James H, AU - Warren,Rebecca J, AU - Oster,Marissa J, Y1 - 2020/03/10/ PY - 2019/07/15/received PY - 2019/11/23/revised PY - 2019/12/03/accepted PY - 2020/3/15/pubmed PY - 2020/9/24/medline PY - 2020/3/15/entrez KW - foodborne KW - helminthiasis KW - trichinosis SP - 235 EP - 244 JF - Wilderness & environmental medicine JO - Wilderness Environ Med VL - 31 IS - 2 N2 - Historically, human trichinellosis was caused by Trichinella spiralis and transmitted to humans by consumption of undercooked domestic pork. Today, most cases of trichinellosis are caused by other Trichinella species and transmitted by consumption of raw or undercooked wild game meats. Given the increasing global prevalence of wild animal meat-linked trichinellosis, the objectives of this review are: 1) to describe the life cycle and global distribution of Trichinella worms; 2) to describe the changing epidemiology of trichinellosis; 3) to describe the clinical phases of trichinellosis; 4) to recommend the latest diagnostic tests; and 5) to recommend treatment and prevention strategies. Internet search engines were queried with keywords as subject headings to meet the objectives of this review. Although trichinellosis surveillance systems and laws regulating commercial pork production have limited T spiralis-caused trichinellosis in Europe and the United States, trichinellosis due to consumption of raw and undercooked wild boar and feral hog meat continues to occur throughout Southeast Asia. Trichinellosis due to consumption of raw or undercooked meats of other infected game, such as bear, deer, moose, and walrus, continues to occur worldwide. Only adherence to hygienic practices when preparing wild game meats and cooking wild game meats to recommended internal temperatures can prevent transmission of trichinellosis to humans. Wilderness medicine clinicians should be prepared to advise hunters and the public on the risks of game meat-linked trichinellosis and on how to diagnose and treat trichinellosis to prevent fatal complications. SN - 1545-1534 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/32169338/The_Disease_Ecology_Epidemiology_Clinical_Manifestations_and_Management_of_Trichinellosis_Linked_to_Consumption_of_Wild_Animal_Meat_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1080-6032(20)30001-6 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -