The Disease Ecology, Epidemiology, Clinical Manifestations, and Management of Trichinellosis Linked to Consumption of Wild Animal Meat.Wilderness Environ Med. 2020 Jun; 31(2):235-244.WE
Historically, human trichinellosis was caused by Trichinella spiralis and transmitted to humans by consumption of undercooked domestic pork. Today, most cases of trichinellosis are caused by other Trichinella species and transmitted by consumption of raw or undercooked wild game meats. Given the increasing global prevalence of wild animal meat-linked trichinellosis, the objectives of this review are: 1) to describe the life cycle and global distribution of Trichinella worms; 2) to describe the changing epidemiology of trichinellosis; 3) to describe the clinical phases of trichinellosis; 4) to recommend the latest diagnostic tests; and 5) to recommend treatment and prevention strategies. Internet search engines were queried with keywords as subject headings to meet the objectives of this review. Although trichinellosis surveillance systems and laws regulating commercial pork production have limited T spiralis-caused trichinellosis in Europe and the United States, trichinellosis due to consumption of raw and undercooked wild boar and feral hog meat continues to occur throughout Southeast Asia. Trichinellosis due to consumption of raw or undercooked meats of other infected game, such as bear, deer, moose, and walrus, continues to occur worldwide. Only adherence to hygienic practices when preparing wild game meats and cooking wild game meats to recommended internal temperatures can prevent transmission of trichinellosis to humans. Wilderness medicine clinicians should be prepared to advise hunters and the public on the risks of game meat-linked trichinellosis and on how to diagnose and treat trichinellosis to prevent fatal complications.