Extracellular vesicle therapy for retinal diseases.Prog Retin Eye Res. 2020 Mar 10 [Online ahead of print]PR
Extracellular vesicles (EV), which include exosomes and microvesicles, are secreted from virtually every cell. EV contain mRNA, miRNA, lipids and proteins and can deliver this expansive cargo into nearby cells as well as over long distances via the blood stream. Great interest has been given to them for their role in cell to cell communication, disease progression, or as biomarkers, and more recent studies have interrogated their potential as a therapeutic that may replace paracrine-acting cell therapies. The retina is a conveniently accessible component of the central nervous system and the proposed paradigm for the testing of many cell therapies. Recently, several studies have been published demonstrating that the delivery of EV/exosomes into the eye can elicit significant therapeutic effects in several models of retinal disease. We summarize results from currently available studies, demonstrating their efficacy in multiple eye disease models as well as highlighting where future research efforts should be directed.