Iron fractions responsible for the variation of Cd bioavailability in paddy soil under variable pe+pH conditions.Chemosphere. 2020 Jul; 251:126355.C
Iron (Fe) in soil is closely related to cadmium (Cd) uptake by rice plants, and soil pe + pH significantly influences Fe redox behavior. This study aimed to explore the influential mechanisms of varying pe + pH conditions on the transformation of iron oxides in the rhizosphere and the subsequent effect on Cd accumulation in rice plants. A two-month pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of soil pe + pH on the fractions of iron oxides and formation of iron plaque (IP), as well as the effect of these changes on Cd uptake by rice plants (Oryza sativa L.). Different irrigation strategies, 70% water holding capacity (DY), continuous flooding (FL), and alternate flooding/drying weekly (AWD), were used to achieve various soil pe + pH levels. The results showed that low pe + pH conditions (under the FL and AWD treatments) were more beneficial to the transformation of crystalline iron oxides into amorphous forms in rhizosphere soil and the precipitation of IP on rice roots. The increase of amorphous iron oxides resulted in the reduction of Cd availability in rhizosphere soil by immobilizing more Cd on Fe oxides. Moreover, Cd adsorbed on rice root surfaces reacted with IP, inhibiting Cd soil-to-root transport. The two mechanisms combinatively functioned at decreasing Cd concentration in rice shoots by 14.1-33.1% at low pe + pH conditions compared to that of the high pe + pH (DY treatment). These results indicate that lowering soil pe + pH effectively reduced Cd accumulation in rice plants, probably through the immobilization of amorphous Fe oxides on Cd and sequestration of iron-plaque on Cd.