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Proposal for a new classification of plantaris muscle origin and its potential effect on the knee joint.
Ann Anat. 2020 Mar 12 [Online ahead of print]AA

Abstract

PURPOSE

The plantaris muscle (PM) is typically characterized by a short, slim and spindle-shaped muscle belly and long, thin tendon. It is situated posterior to the popliteal muscle, and anterior to the lateral head of the gastrocnemius muscle (GM). Little information exists regarding the high variability of origin of the PM. The main aim of the study was hence to characterize the morphology of the PM and its place of origin, classify it and evaluate its prevalence.

METHODS

Classical anatomical dissection was performed on 142 lower limbs (77 left, and 65 right) fixed in 10 % formalin solution. The morphology of the origin of the PM and its prevalence was evaluated.

RESULTS

The PM was present in 128 lower limbs (90.1 %). Six types of origin were observed, the most common being Type I (48.4 %). This type was divided into two subtypes (A-B): subtype A attaching to the lateral head of the GM, lateral femoral condyle and to the capsule of the knee joint, and subtype B, attaching to the lateral head of the GM, the lateral femoral condyle, knee joint capsule and the popliteal surface of the femur. The second most common type was Type II (25 %), attaching to the capsule of the knee joint and, indirectly, to the lateral head of the GM through the lateral femoral condyle. The third most common type was Type III (10.15 %), attaching to the lateral femoral condyle and the knee joint capsule. Type IV (6.25 %), the rarest type, attached to the lateral femoral condyle, knee joint capsule and to the iliotibial band. Type V (8.6 %) originated only from the lateral condyle of the femur. Type VI (1.6 %) contains only "rare cases".

CONCLUSION

The PM presents high morphological variability, and its status as a residual muscle should be reconsidered. Our presented classification of its types of origin is a valuable addition for both clinicians and anatomists. Level of Evidence - II Basic Science Research.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Anatomical Dissection and Donation, Medical University of Lodz, Poland. Electronic address: lukasz.olewnik@umed.lodz.pl.Department of Anatomical Dissection and Donation, Medical University of Lodz, Poland.Department of Anatomical Dissection and Donation, Medical University of Lodz, Poland.Polish Mother's Memorial Hospital Research Institute, Lodz, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Lodz, Poland.Clinic of Orthopedics and Pediatric Orthopedics, Medical University of Lodz, Lodz, Poland.Department of Normal and Clinical Anatomy, Medical University of Lodz, Poland.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

32173563

Citation

Olewnik, Ł, et al. "Proposal for a New Classification of Plantaris Muscle Origin and Its Potential Effect On the Knee Joint." Annals of Anatomy = Anatomischer Anzeiger : Official Organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft, 2020, p. 151506.
Olewnik Ł, Kurtys K, Gonera B, et al. Proposal for a new classification of plantaris muscle origin and its potential effect on the knee joint. Ann Anat. 2020.
Olewnik, Ł., Kurtys, K., Gonera, B., Podgórski, M., Sibiński, M., & Polguj, M. (2020). Proposal for a new classification of plantaris muscle origin and its potential effect on the knee joint. Annals of Anatomy = Anatomischer Anzeiger : Official Organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft, 151506. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aanat.2020.151506
Olewnik Ł, et al. Proposal for a New Classification of Plantaris Muscle Origin and Its Potential Effect On the Knee Joint. Ann Anat. 2020 Mar 12;151506. PubMed PMID: 32173563.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Proposal for a new classification of plantaris muscle origin and its potential effect on the knee joint. AU - Olewnik,Ł, AU - Kurtys,K, AU - Gonera,B, AU - Podgórski,M, AU - Sibiński,M, AU - Polguj,M, Y1 - 2020/03/12/ PY - 2019/11/23/received PY - 2020/02/29/revised PY - 2020/03/01/accepted PY - 2020/3/17/entrez PY - 2020/3/17/pubmed PY - 2020/3/17/medline KW - anatomical variations KW - iliotibial syndrome. KW - plantaris muscle KW - plantaris tendon KW - tennis leg SP - 151506 EP - 151506 JF - Annals of anatomy = Anatomischer Anzeiger : official organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft JO - Ann. Anat. N2 - PURPOSE: The plantaris muscle (PM) is typically characterized by a short, slim and spindle-shaped muscle belly and long, thin tendon. It is situated posterior to the popliteal muscle, and anterior to the lateral head of the gastrocnemius muscle (GM). Little information exists regarding the high variability of origin of the PM. The main aim of the study was hence to characterize the morphology of the PM and its place of origin, classify it and evaluate its prevalence. METHODS: Classical anatomical dissection was performed on 142 lower limbs (77 left, and 65 right) fixed in 10 % formalin solution. The morphology of the origin of the PM and its prevalence was evaluated. RESULTS: The PM was present in 128 lower limbs (90.1 %). Six types of origin were observed, the most common being Type I (48.4 %). This type was divided into two subtypes (A-B): subtype A attaching to the lateral head of the GM, lateral femoral condyle and to the capsule of the knee joint, and subtype B, attaching to the lateral head of the GM, the lateral femoral condyle, knee joint capsule and the popliteal surface of the femur. The second most common type was Type II (25 %), attaching to the capsule of the knee joint and, indirectly, to the lateral head of the GM through the lateral femoral condyle. The third most common type was Type III (10.15 %), attaching to the lateral femoral condyle and the knee joint capsule. Type IV (6.25 %), the rarest type, attached to the lateral femoral condyle, knee joint capsule and to the iliotibial band. Type V (8.6 %) originated only from the lateral condyle of the femur. Type VI (1.6 %) contains only "rare cases". CONCLUSION: The PM presents high morphological variability, and its status as a residual muscle should be reconsidered. Our presented classification of its types of origin is a valuable addition for both clinicians and anatomists. Level of Evidence - II Basic Science Research. SN - 1618-0402 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/32173563/Proposal_for_a_new_classification_of_plantaris_muscle_origin_and_its_potential_effect_on_the_knee_joint L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0940-9602(20)30050-9 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -
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