The Colonization of Carbapenem-Resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae: Epidemiology, Resistance Mechanisms, and Risk Factors in Patients Admitted to Intensive Care Units in China.J Infect Dis. 2020 Mar 16; 221(Supplement_2):S206-S214.JI
Carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP) has become a threat to public health, most notably as a superbug causing nosocomial infections. Patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) are at increased risk of hospital-acquired K pneumoniae infection, especially CRKP. This study was conducted to investigate the frequency of gastrointestinal and nasopharyngeal K pneumoniae colonization and its contribution to infections in ICU patients.
A 3-month prospective cohort study was performed in which 243 ICU patients were screened for intestinal and nasopharyngeal carriage of K pneumoniae at admission and once per week thereafter. The colonization and clinical infection isolates were analyzed by antimicrobial susceptibility testing to identify CRKP and were characterized by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and whole-genome sequencing combined with epidemiological data to investigate the resistance mechanisms and assess the possible transmitted infection.
Twenty-eight percent (68 of 243) of patients tested positive for carriage of K pneumoniae immediately upon admission to ICU, 54% (37 of 68) of which were nonduplicate CRKP isolates. Patients with carbapenem-susceptible K pneumoniae (CSKP) colonization at admission were more likely to acquire CRKP colonization during the ICU stay compared with patients without K pneumoniae colonization at admission. The incidence of subsequent CRKP infection in the baseline CSKP (32.3%, 10 of 31) and CRKP (45.9%, 17 of 37) carrier group was significantly higher than that of the baseline non-KP carrier group (8.6%, 15 of 175). The risk factors associated with acquired CRKP colonization during the ICU stay among negative CRKP colonization at admission included previous exposure to carbapenem, tigecycline or β-lactam/β-lactamases inhibitor, and invasive processes or surgical operations. Sixty-four percent (27 of 42) of patients with K pneumoniae infection were colonized by clonally related K pneumoniae strains according to enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus sequence-polymerase chain reaction analysis. ST11 (72%, 53 of 74) was the most predominant MLST type of clonally related CRKP isolate colonizing these patients, followed by ST15 (26%, 19 of 74).
The colonization of K pneumoniae may increase the incidence of corresponding K pneumoniae infection in critically ill patients in the ICU. High prevalence of ST11 CRKP (due to blaKPC-2) carriage and infection in ICU was observed.