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Epidemiology, causes, clinical manifestation and diagnosis, prevention and control of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) during the early outbreak period: a scoping review.
Infect Dis Poverty. 2020 Mar 17; 9(1):29.ID

Abstract

BACKGROUND

The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has been identified as the cause of an outbreak of respiratory illness in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China beginning in December 2019. As of 31 January 2020, this epidemic had spread to 19 countries with 11 791 confirmed cases, including 213 deaths. The World Health Organization has declared it a Public Health Emergency of International Concern.

METHODS

A scoping review was conducted following the methodological framework suggested by Arksey and O'Malley. In this scoping review, 65 research articles published before 31 January 2020 were analyzed and discussed to better understand the epidemiology, causes, clinical diagnosis, prevention and control of this virus. The research domains, dates of publication, journal language, authors' affiliations, and methodological characteristics were included in the analysis. All the findings and statements in this review regarding the outbreak are based on published information as listed in the references.

RESULTS

Most of the publications were written using the English language (89.2%). The largest proportion of published articles were related to causes (38.5%) and a majority (67.7%) were published by Chinese scholars. Research articles initially focused on causes, but over time there was an increase of the articles related to prevention and control. Studies thus far have shown that the virus' origination is in connection to a seafood market in Wuhan, but specific animal associations have not been confirmed. Reported symptoms include fever, cough, fatigue, pneumonia, headache, diarrhea, hemoptysis, and dyspnea. Preventive measures such as masks, hand hygiene practices, avoidance of public contact, case detection, contact tracing, and quarantines have been discussed as ways to reduce transmission. To date, no specific antiviral treatment has proven effective; hence, infected people primarily rely on symptomatic treatment and supportive care.

CONCLUSIONS

There has been a rapid surge in research in response to the outbreak of COVID-19. During this early period, published research primarily explored the epidemiology, causes, clinical manifestation and diagnosis, as well as prevention and control of the novel coronavirus. Although these studies are relevant to control the current public emergency, more high-quality research is needed to provide valid and reliable ways to manage this kind of public health emergency in both the short- and long-term.

Authors+Show Affiliations

West China School of Public Health and West China Fourth Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.West China School of Public Health and West China Fourth Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.West China School of Public Health and West China Fourth Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.Department of Communication Studies, California State University, Long Beach, CA, 90802, USA.West China School of Public Health and West China Fourth Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.West China School of Public Health and West China Fourth Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.West China School of Public Health and West China Fourth Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.Health Policy and Management, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.Freeman Spogli Institute for International Studies, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA.Department of Public Health, Erasmus MC-University Medical Center Rotterdam, 3000, CA, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.West China School of Public Health and West China Fourth Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China. zhouhuan@scu.edu.cn.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

32183901

Citation

Adhikari, Sasmita Poudel, et al. "Epidemiology, Causes, Clinical Manifestation and Diagnosis, Prevention and Control of Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) During the Early Outbreak Period: a Scoping Review." Infectious Diseases of Poverty, vol. 9, no. 1, 2020, p. 29.
Adhikari SP, Meng S, Wu YJ, et al. Epidemiology, causes, clinical manifestation and diagnosis, prevention and control of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) during the early outbreak period: a scoping review. Infect Dis Poverty. 2020;9(1):29.
Adhikari, S. P., Meng, S., Wu, Y. J., Mao, Y. P., Ye, R. X., Wang, Q. Z., Sun, C., Sylvia, S., Rozelle, S., Raat, H., & Zhou, H. (2020). Epidemiology, causes, clinical manifestation and diagnosis, prevention and control of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) during the early outbreak period: a scoping review. Infectious Diseases of Poverty, 9(1), 29. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40249-020-00646-x
Adhikari SP, et al. Epidemiology, Causes, Clinical Manifestation and Diagnosis, Prevention and Control of Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) During the Early Outbreak Period: a Scoping Review. Infect Dis Poverty. 2020 Mar 17;9(1):29. PubMed PMID: 32183901.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Epidemiology, causes, clinical manifestation and diagnosis, prevention and control of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) during the early outbreak period: a scoping review. AU - Adhikari,Sasmita Poudel, AU - Meng,Sha, AU - Wu,Yu-Ju, AU - Mao,Yu-Ping, AU - Ye,Rui-Xue, AU - Wang,Qing-Zhi, AU - Sun,Chang, AU - Sylvia,Sean, AU - Rozelle,Scott, AU - Raat,Hein, AU - Zhou,Huan, Y1 - 2020/03/17/ PY - 2020/02/11/received PY - 2020/03/05/accepted PY - 2020/3/19/entrez PY - 2020/3/19/pubmed PY - 2020/3/20/medline KW - COVID-19 KW - Causes KW - Epidemiology KW - Prevention and control KW - Review SP - 29 EP - 29 JF - Infectious diseases of poverty JO - Infect Dis Poverty VL - 9 IS - 1 N2 - BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has been identified as the cause of an outbreak of respiratory illness in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China beginning in December 2019. As of 31 January 2020, this epidemic had spread to 19 countries with 11 791 confirmed cases, including 213 deaths. The World Health Organization has declared it a Public Health Emergency of International Concern. METHODS: A scoping review was conducted following the methodological framework suggested by Arksey and O'Malley. In this scoping review, 65 research articles published before 31 January 2020 were analyzed and discussed to better understand the epidemiology, causes, clinical diagnosis, prevention and control of this virus. The research domains, dates of publication, journal language, authors' affiliations, and methodological characteristics were included in the analysis. All the findings and statements in this review regarding the outbreak are based on published information as listed in the references. RESULTS: Most of the publications were written using the English language (89.2%). The largest proportion of published articles were related to causes (38.5%) and a majority (67.7%) were published by Chinese scholars. Research articles initially focused on causes, but over time there was an increase of the articles related to prevention and control. Studies thus far have shown that the virus' origination is in connection to a seafood market in Wuhan, but specific animal associations have not been confirmed. Reported symptoms include fever, cough, fatigue, pneumonia, headache, diarrhea, hemoptysis, and dyspnea. Preventive measures such as masks, hand hygiene practices, avoidance of public contact, case detection, contact tracing, and quarantines have been discussed as ways to reduce transmission. To date, no specific antiviral treatment has proven effective; hence, infected people primarily rely on symptomatic treatment and supportive care. CONCLUSIONS: There has been a rapid surge in research in response to the outbreak of COVID-19. During this early period, published research primarily explored the epidemiology, causes, clinical manifestation and diagnosis, as well as prevention and control of the novel coronavirus. Although these studies are relevant to control the current public emergency, more high-quality research is needed to provide valid and reliable ways to manage this kind of public health emergency in both the short- and long-term. SN - 2049-9957 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/32183901/Epidemiology_causes_clinical_manifestation_and_diagnosis_prevention_and_control_of_coronavirus_disease__COVID_19__during_the_early_outbreak_period:_a_scoping_review L2 - https://idpjournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s40249-020-00646-x DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -