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The method simulating spontaneous pain in patients with nociplastic pain using rats with fibromyalgia-like condition.
MethodsX. 2020; 7:100826.M

Abstract

The method shown in this article simulates spontaneous pain in patients with nociplastic pain using rats; the measurement with this method could be related to better translation of analgesic efficacies of therapeutic compounds between rats and humans. Nociplastic pain occurs in various disorders including fibromyalgia. Because the pain in patients occurs without an external stimulus, we assessed spontaneous pain in rats. The grimace scale, a methodology for rating facial expression, has been used for measuring spontaneous pain in animals. However, the responses in animals have been rather short-lived, and the scale has never been applied to animals exhibiting nociplastic pain. Here, we apply the rat grimace scale (RGS) to the reserpine-induced fibromyalgia-like rat, which induces nociplastic pain. The ratings of the orbital tightening, nose/cheek flattening, and changes in characteristics of ears and whiskers by three raters, who were blinded to the treatment allocated to rats, demonstrated substantial, long-lasting change in facial expression of rats. In this article, reference images for raters, and sample images used for rater training are provided. All raters independently indicated that the RGS score is significantly elevated with this methodology in reserpine-induced fibromyalgia-like rats.•The grimace scale, a method for rating facial expression, is applied to the reserpine-induced fibromyalgia-like rat, which manifests nociplastic pain.•Facial expression change in the reserpine-induced fibromyalgia-like rat is substantial and long-lasting.•Elevation of the RGS score in the reserpine-induced fibromyalgia-like rat may simulate spontaneous pain in patients with nociplastic pain.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Aomori University, 2-3-1 Kohbata, Aomori 030-0943 Japan. Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Nihon Pharmaceutical University, 10281 Komuro, Ina-machi, Kitaadachi-gun, Saitama 362-0806, Japan.Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Aomori University, 2-3-1 Kohbata, Aomori 030-0943 Japan.Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Aomori University, 2-3-1 Kohbata, Aomori 030-0943 Japan.Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Aomori University, 2-3-1 Kohbata, Aomori 030-0943 Japan.Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Aomori University, 2-3-1 Kohbata, Aomori 030-0943 Japan. School of Pharmacy, International University of Health and Welfare, 2600-1 Kitakanemaru, Ohtawara, Tochigi 324-8501, Japan. School of Pharmacy in Fukuoka, International University of Health and Welfare, 137-1 Enokizu, Okawa-city, Fukuoka 831-8501, Japan.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

32195142

Citation

Tanei, Shigeharu, et al. "The Method Simulating Spontaneous Pain in Patients With Nociplastic Pain Using Rats With Fibromyalgia-like Condition." MethodsX, vol. 7, 2020, p. 100826.
Tanei S, Miwa M, Yoshida M, et al. The method simulating spontaneous pain in patients with nociplastic pain using rats with fibromyalgia-like condition. MethodsX. 2020;7:100826.
Tanei, S., Miwa, M., Yoshida, M., Miura, R., & Nagakura, Y. (2020). The method simulating spontaneous pain in patients with nociplastic pain using rats with fibromyalgia-like condition. MethodsX, 7, 100826. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mex.2020.100826
Tanei S, et al. The Method Simulating Spontaneous Pain in Patients With Nociplastic Pain Using Rats With Fibromyalgia-like Condition. MethodsX. 2020;7:100826. PubMed PMID: 32195142.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - The method simulating spontaneous pain in patients with nociplastic pain using rats with fibromyalgia-like condition. AU - Tanei,Shigeharu, AU - Miwa,Machiko, AU - Yoshida,Miku, AU - Miura,Reina, AU - Nagakura,Yukinori, Y1 - 2020/02/26/ PY - 2019/10/28/received PY - 2020/02/12/accepted PY - 2020/3/21/entrez PY - 2020/3/21/pubmed PY - 2020/3/21/medline KW - Efficacy translation KW - Fibromyalgia-like rat KW - Grimace scale KW - Long-lasting pain KW - Nociplastic pain KW - Spontaneous pain SP - 100826 EP - 100826 JF - MethodsX JO - MethodsX VL - 7 N2 - The method shown in this article simulates spontaneous pain in patients with nociplastic pain using rats; the measurement with this method could be related to better translation of analgesic efficacies of therapeutic compounds between rats and humans. Nociplastic pain occurs in various disorders including fibromyalgia. Because the pain in patients occurs without an external stimulus, we assessed spontaneous pain in rats. The grimace scale, a methodology for rating facial expression, has been used for measuring spontaneous pain in animals. However, the responses in animals have been rather short-lived, and the scale has never been applied to animals exhibiting nociplastic pain. Here, we apply the rat grimace scale (RGS) to the reserpine-induced fibromyalgia-like rat, which induces nociplastic pain. The ratings of the orbital tightening, nose/cheek flattening, and changes in characteristics of ears and whiskers by three raters, who were blinded to the treatment allocated to rats, demonstrated substantial, long-lasting change in facial expression of rats. In this article, reference images for raters, and sample images used for rater training are provided. All raters independently indicated that the RGS score is significantly elevated with this methodology in reserpine-induced fibromyalgia-like rats.•The grimace scale, a method for rating facial expression, is applied to the reserpine-induced fibromyalgia-like rat, which manifests nociplastic pain.•Facial expression change in the reserpine-induced fibromyalgia-like rat is substantial and long-lasting.•Elevation of the RGS score in the reserpine-induced fibromyalgia-like rat may simulate spontaneous pain in patients with nociplastic pain. SN - 2215-0161 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/32195142/The_method_simulating_spontaneous_pain_in_patients_with_nociplastic_pain_using_rats_with_fibromyalgia_like_condition_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S2215-0161(20)30046-7 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -
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