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Dependence on e-cigarettes and cigarettes in a cross-sectional study of US adults.
Addiction. 2020 10; 115(10):1924-1931.A

Abstract

BACKGROUND AND AIMS

Cigarette smoking often results in nicotine dependence. With use of electronic cigarettes as an alternative source of nicotine, it is important to assess dependence associated with e-cigarette use. This study assesses dependence among current and former adult e-cigarette users on cigarettes and e-cigarettes, compared with dependence on cigarettes.

DESIGN

Cross-sectional data from the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) study from 2013-2016. Psychometrically assessed dependence was compared for cigarettes and e-cigarettes among current and former exclusive and dual users of the products and among e-cigarette users who had and had not recently stopped smoking. Setting A population-based representative sample of US adults. Participants Participants were 13 311 US adults (18+) in Waves 1-3 of PATH reporting current established smoking, current use of e-cigarettes, or stopping use of either product in the past year who were administered dependence assessments for cigarettes and/or e-cigarettes. Measurements A 16-item scale assessing tobacco dependence (on a 1-5 scale), previously validated for assessment and comparison of dependence on varied tobacco products, including cigarettes and e-cigarettes, with a variation assessing residual dependence among users who stopped in the past year. Findings Among current users, dependence on e-cigarettes was significantly lower than dependence on cigarettes, in within-subjects comparisons among dual users of both e-cigarettes and cigarettes (1.58 [SE = 0.05] vs. 2.76 [0.04]), P < 0.0001), and in separate groups of e-cigarette users and cigarette smokers (1.95 [0.05] vs. 2.52 [0.02], P < 0.0001), and among both daily and non-daily users of each product. Among former users, residual symptoms were significantly lower for e-cigarettes than cigarettes, both among former dual users (1.23 [0.07] vs. 1.41 [0.06], P < 0.001) and among users of one product (1.28 [0.03] vs. 1.53 [0.03], P < 0.0001). The highest level of e-cigarette dependence was among e-cigarette users who had stopped smoking (2.17 [0.08]). Conclusion Use of e-cigarettes appears to be consistently associated with lower nicotine dependence than cigarette smoking.

Authors+Show Affiliations

PinneyAssociates, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA, USA. University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.PinneyAssociates, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA, USA.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

32196810

Citation

Shiffman, Saul, and Mark A. Sembower. "Dependence On E-cigarettes and Cigarettes in a Cross-sectional Study of US Adults." Addiction (Abingdon, England), vol. 115, no. 10, 2020, pp. 1924-1931.
Shiffman S, Sembower MA. Dependence on e-cigarettes and cigarettes in a cross-sectional study of US adults. Addiction. 2020;115(10):1924-1931.
Shiffman, S., & Sembower, M. A. (2020). Dependence on e-cigarettes and cigarettes in a cross-sectional study of US adults. Addiction (Abingdon, England), 115(10), 1924-1931. https://doi.org/10.1111/add.15060
Shiffman S, Sembower MA. Dependence On E-cigarettes and Cigarettes in a Cross-sectional Study of US Adults. Addiction. 2020;115(10):1924-1931. PubMed PMID: 32196810.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Dependence on e-cigarettes and cigarettes in a cross-sectional study of US adults. AU - Shiffman,Saul, AU - Sembower,Mark A, Y1 - 2020/04/20/ PY - 2019/07/25/received PY - 2019/10/24/revised PY - 2020/03/19/accepted PY - 2020/3/21/pubmed PY - 2021/4/20/medline PY - 2020/3/21/entrez KW - Cigarettes KW - dependence KW - electronic cigarettes KW - nicotine KW - tobacco KW - youth use SP - 1924 EP - 1931 JF - Addiction (Abingdon, England) JO - Addiction VL - 115 IS - 10 N2 - BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Cigarette smoking often results in nicotine dependence. With use of electronic cigarettes as an alternative source of nicotine, it is important to assess dependence associated with e-cigarette use. This study assesses dependence among current and former adult e-cigarette users on cigarettes and e-cigarettes, compared with dependence on cigarettes. DESIGN: Cross-sectional data from the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) study from 2013-2016. Psychometrically assessed dependence was compared for cigarettes and e-cigarettes among current and former exclusive and dual users of the products and among e-cigarette users who had and had not recently stopped smoking. Setting A population-based representative sample of US adults. Participants Participants were 13 311 US adults (18+) in Waves 1-3 of PATH reporting current established smoking, current use of e-cigarettes, or stopping use of either product in the past year who were administered dependence assessments for cigarettes and/or e-cigarettes. Measurements A 16-item scale assessing tobacco dependence (on a 1-5 scale), previously validated for assessment and comparison of dependence on varied tobacco products, including cigarettes and e-cigarettes, with a variation assessing residual dependence among users who stopped in the past year. Findings Among current users, dependence on e-cigarettes was significantly lower than dependence on cigarettes, in within-subjects comparisons among dual users of both e-cigarettes and cigarettes (1.58 [SE = 0.05] vs. 2.76 [0.04]), P < 0.0001), and in separate groups of e-cigarette users and cigarette smokers (1.95 [0.05] vs. 2.52 [0.02], P < 0.0001), and among both daily and non-daily users of each product. Among former users, residual symptoms were significantly lower for e-cigarettes than cigarettes, both among former dual users (1.23 [0.07] vs. 1.41 [0.06], P < 0.001) and among users of one product (1.28 [0.03] vs. 1.53 [0.03], P < 0.0001). The highest level of e-cigarette dependence was among e-cigarette users who had stopped smoking (2.17 [0.08]). Conclusion Use of e-cigarettes appears to be consistently associated with lower nicotine dependence than cigarette smoking. SN - 1360-0443 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/32196810/Dependence_on_e_cigarettes_and_cigarettes_in_a_cross_sectional_study_of_US_adults_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1111/add.15060 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -