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Principal Components and Hierarchical Cluster Analyses of Trace Metals and Total Hydrocarbons in Gills, Intestines and Muscles of Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822).
Sci Rep. 2020 03 20; 10(1):5180.SR

Abstract

The aim of the study was to comparatively analyze the interrelationships among iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr) and total hydrocarbons (THCs) in the gills, intestines and muscles of Clarias gariepinus collected from Osse River, Nigeria, between the periods of April, 2013 to September, 2014. The trace metals in the fish tissues were analyzed using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS, Philips model PU 9100), while total hydrocarbons were analyzed using High Performance Liquid Chromatograph (HPLC,Prominence Dual brand from HGE) equipped with a detector Shimadzu UV-Visible (UV-Vis Prominence SPD 20 A). The concentrations of trace metals and THCs in the tissues were subjected to principal component analysis (PCA), in conjunction with hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), backed up by correlation analysis (CA). In the most prioritized component among the hierarchies of contaminants, characterized as principal component 1, results of communality extractions and rotated component matrices revealed the order of contaminants was Mn > Cu > Zn > Fe > Cr in the intestines, Cr > Cu > THCs > Mn > Fe in the muscle, while Pb > Cr > Fe > Mn was the order in the gills of the fish. Iron inhibited accumulation of the other trace metals in the gills, where its threshold of essentiality was maximal. Noteworthy is the fact that Mn and Cu were the most active components in the muscle and concurrently of excess concentrations in the tissue, which is the major edible part of fish, and constitutes its main body weight, hence holds its nutritional and economic values. High level of variability which occurred in the toxicant profile across the tissues of C. gariepinus is a function of uptake route, varied organ functions and specificity of tissue permeability of the compared organs. The study demonstrated variability in organ accumulation capacity and toxicant's competitiveness irrespective of bioavailability. The study provides data useful for future ecotoxicological studies and safety of consumers of the fish.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Biological Science, Covenant University, P.M.B. 1023, Ota, Ogun State, Nigeria. patrickisibor007@gmail.com.Department of Animal and Environmental Biology, University of Benin, P.M.B. 1154, Benin City, Nigeria.Department of Environmental Management and Toxicology, University of Benin, P.M.B. 1154, Benin City, Nigeria.Department of Biological Science, Covenant University, P.M.B. 1023, Ota, Ogun State, Nigeria.Department of Pure and Applied Zoology, Federal University of Agriculture, P.M.B. 2240, Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria.Department of Physics, Covenant University, P.M.B. 1023, Ota, Ogun State, Nigeria.Department of Biological Science, Covenant University, P.M.B. 1023, Ota, Ogun State, Nigeria.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

32198448

Citation

Isibor, Patrick Omoregie, et al. "Principal Components and Hierarchical Cluster Analyses of Trace Metals and Total Hydrocarbons in Gills, Intestines and Muscles of Clarias Gariepinus (Burchell, 1822)." Scientific Reports, vol. 10, no. 1, 2020, p. 5180.
Isibor PO, Imoobe TOT, Enuneku AA, et al. Principal Components and Hierarchical Cluster Analyses of Trace Metals and Total Hydrocarbons in Gills, Intestines and Muscles of Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822). Sci Rep. 2020;10(1):5180.
Isibor, P. O., Imoobe, T. O. T., Enuneku, A. A., Akinduti, P. A., Dedeke, G. A., Adagunodo, T. A., & Obafemi, D. Y. (2020). Principal Components and Hierarchical Cluster Analyses of Trace Metals and Total Hydrocarbons in Gills, Intestines and Muscles of Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822). Scientific Reports, 10(1), 5180. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-62024-9
Isibor PO, et al. Principal Components and Hierarchical Cluster Analyses of Trace Metals and Total Hydrocarbons in Gills, Intestines and Muscles of Clarias Gariepinus (Burchell, 1822). Sci Rep. 2020 03 20;10(1):5180. PubMed PMID: 32198448.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Principal Components and Hierarchical Cluster Analyses of Trace Metals and Total Hydrocarbons in Gills, Intestines and Muscles of Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822). AU - Isibor,Patrick Omoregie, AU - Imoobe,Tunde O Thaddeus, AU - Enuneku,Alex Ajeh, AU - Akinduti,Paul Akinniyi, AU - Dedeke,Gabriel Adewunmi, AU - Adagunodo,Theophilus Aanuoluwa, AU - Obafemi,Dorcas Yemisi, Y1 - 2020/03/20/ PY - 2019/04/18/received PY - 2020/03/03/accepted PY - 2020/3/22/entrez PY - 2020/3/22/pubmed PY - 2021/1/7/medline SP - 5180 EP - 5180 JF - Scientific reports JO - Sci Rep VL - 10 IS - 1 N2 - The aim of the study was to comparatively analyze the interrelationships among iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr) and total hydrocarbons (THCs) in the gills, intestines and muscles of Clarias gariepinus collected from Osse River, Nigeria, between the periods of April, 2013 to September, 2014. The trace metals in the fish tissues were analyzed using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS, Philips model PU 9100), while total hydrocarbons were analyzed using High Performance Liquid Chromatograph (HPLC,Prominence Dual brand from HGE) equipped with a detector Shimadzu UV-Visible (UV-Vis Prominence SPD 20 A). The concentrations of trace metals and THCs in the tissues were subjected to principal component analysis (PCA), in conjunction with hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), backed up by correlation analysis (CA). In the most prioritized component among the hierarchies of contaminants, characterized as principal component 1, results of communality extractions and rotated component matrices revealed the order of contaminants was Mn > Cu > Zn > Fe > Cr in the intestines, Cr > Cu > THCs > Mn > Fe in the muscle, while Pb > Cr > Fe > Mn was the order in the gills of the fish. Iron inhibited accumulation of the other trace metals in the gills, where its threshold of essentiality was maximal. Noteworthy is the fact that Mn and Cu were the most active components in the muscle and concurrently of excess concentrations in the tissue, which is the major edible part of fish, and constitutes its main body weight, hence holds its nutritional and economic values. High level of variability which occurred in the toxicant profile across the tissues of C. gariepinus is a function of uptake route, varied organ functions and specificity of tissue permeability of the compared organs. The study demonstrated variability in organ accumulation capacity and toxicant's competitiveness irrespective of bioavailability. The study provides data useful for future ecotoxicological studies and safety of consumers of the fish. SN - 2045-2322 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/32198448/Principal_Components_and_Hierarchical_Cluster_Analyses_of_Trace_Metals_and_Total_Hydrocarbons_in_Gills_Intestines_and_Muscles_of_Clarias_gariepinus__Burchell_1822__ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-62024-9 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -