Principal Components and Hierarchical Cluster Analyses of Trace Metals and Total Hydrocarbons in Gills, Intestines and Muscles of Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822).Sci Rep. 2020 03 20; 10(1):5180.SR
The aim of the study was to comparatively analyze the interrelationships among iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr) and total hydrocarbons (THCs) in the gills, intestines and muscles of Clarias gariepinus collected from Osse River, Nigeria, between the periods of April, 2013 to September, 2014. The trace metals in the fish tissues were analyzed using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS, Philips model PU 9100), while total hydrocarbons were analyzed using High Performance Liquid Chromatograph (HPLC,Prominence Dual brand from HGE) equipped with a detector Shimadzu UV-Visible (UV-Vis Prominence SPD 20 A). The concentrations of trace metals and THCs in the tissues were subjected to principal component analysis (PCA), in conjunction with hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), backed up by correlation analysis (CA). In the most prioritized component among the hierarchies of contaminants, characterized as principal component 1, results of communality extractions and rotated component matrices revealed the order of contaminants was Mn > Cu > Zn > Fe > Cr in the intestines, Cr > Cu > THCs > Mn > Fe in the muscle, while Pb > Cr > Fe > Mn was the order in the gills of the fish. Iron inhibited accumulation of the other trace metals in the gills, where its threshold of essentiality was maximal. Noteworthy is the fact that Mn and Cu were the most active components in the muscle and concurrently of excess concentrations in the tissue, which is the major edible part of fish, and constitutes its main body weight, hence holds its nutritional and economic values. High level of variability which occurred in the toxicant profile across the tissues of C. gariepinus is a function of uptake route, varied organ functions and specificity of tissue permeability of the compared organs. The study demonstrated variability in organ accumulation capacity and toxicant's competitiveness irrespective of bioavailability. The study provides data useful for future ecotoxicological studies and safety of consumers of the fish.