Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the FRAIL-NH scale for Chinese nursing home residents: A methodological and cross-sectional study.Int J Nurs Stud. 2020 May; 105:103556.IJ
Frailty is a common condition in older adults, and has a particularly high prevalence among nursing home residents. Therefore, it is essential to assess frailty in nursing homes. The FRAIL-NH scale is a brief, quick-to-complete, and user-friendly measurement tool. However, it has not been used in China, and further cross-cultural adaptation and validation need to be undertaken.
To cross-culturally adapt and validate the FRAIL-NH scale for Chinese nursing home residents.
Methodological and cross-sectional study.
Twenty-seven nursing homes in Jinan, China.
Older Chinese nursing home residents (n = 353, age ≥60 years, 197 women; 156 men).
Interviewers obtained data on frailty, demographics, comorbidity, physical function, nutritional status, and self-rated health. The Chinese FRAIL-NH scale version was generated using the translation-backward translation method. Psychometric properties, including internal consistency, test-retest reliability, convergent validity, criterion validity, and diagnosis accuracy were evaluated.
The FRAIL-NH scale showed acceptable internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha: 0.67) and satisfactory test-retest reliability within a 1- to 2-week interval (intraclass correlation coefficient: 0.84). As expected, the FRAIL-NH scale was correlated to the validated measurements, presenting convergent validity. Using the frailty phenotype as a reference criterion, the area under the curve was 0.79. The optimal cutoff point for frailty was 2 (sensitivity: 69.90% and 77.33%) in Chinese nursing homes. The FRAIL-NH scale was significantly associated with the frailty phenotype (correlation coefficient = 0.61, P < 0.001), but showed fair agreement with it (kappa = 0.46, p < 0.001).
The FRAIL-NH scale was found to be suitable for frailty measurement with acceptable validity and reliability, and the optimal cutoff point for frailty was 2. The FRAIL-NH scale can be applied in Chinese nursing homes.