Anti-Obesity Drugs: Long-Term Efficacy and Safety: An Updated Review.World J Mens Health. 2020 Mar 09 [Online ahead of print]WJ
As a chronic and relapsing disease, obesity negatively impacts the health of men to a greater extent than that of women, with a higher risk of cardiovascular disease. Since lifestyle modifications alone are often challenging and limited for the maintenance of weight reduction, pharmacotherapy should be considered in a timely manner for obese men or overweight patients with weight-related comorbidities. Recent advances in anti-obesity drugs have enabled the potential of achieving clinically significant weight loss. Increasing evidence has shown that behavior-based interventions with one of these medications can result in greater weight loss than that elicited by usual care conditions. Data from most recent meta-analyses showed that the overall placebo-subtracted weight reduction (%) with the use of anti-obesity drugs for at least 12 months ranges from 2.9% to 6.8%; phentermine/topiramate (-6.8%) liraglutide (-5.4%), naltrexone/bupropion (-4.0%), lorcaserin (-3.1%), and orlistat (-2.9%). However, they have a high cost and may cause adverse outcomes depending on the individual. Very recently, on February 13, 2020, the US Food and Drug Administration requested withdrawal of lorcaserin from the market because a safety clinical trial showed an increased occurrence of cancer. Therefore the decision to initiate drug therapy in obese individuals should be made after the benefits and risks are considered. Thereafter, treatment should be tailored to specific patient subpopulations depending on their chronic conditions, comorbidities, and preferences. Herein, we provide an overview of the latest developments in weight loss medications, which may serve as one of the strategies for long-term obesity control.