Reduced-intensity stem cell transplantation for acute myeloid leukemia with fludarabine-based conditioning with intravenous busulfan versus melphalan.Bone Marrow Transplant. 2020 Oct; 55(10):1955-1965.BM
Reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) has been facilitating allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) for patients originally considered ineligible for HCT with myeloablative conditioning. Fludarabine (Flu) with reduced doses of busulfan (Bu) (Flu + Bu) and Flu with reduced doses of melphalan (Mel) (Flu + Mel) are widely used RIC regimens for acute myeloid leukemia (AML). A nationwide retrospective study comparing clinical outcomes of adult patients with AML receiving first allo-HCT after RIC between 2001 and 2010 was performed. Cumulative incidences of relapse were not significantly different among the Flu + ivBu-based (FBiv), Flu + poBu-based (FBpo), and Flu + Mel-based (FM) groups (p = 0.29). Non-relapse mortality (NRM) was significantly lower in patients receiving FBiv compared with FBpo (p = 0.003) and FM (p < 0.001). On multivariate analysis, there was no significant difference in overall survival, but FM was associated with a significantly lower risk of relapse (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.65, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.50-0.85, p = 0.002), higher NRM (HR = 1.60, 95% CI: 1.10-2.33, p = 0.013) and better leukemia-free survival (HR = 0.77, 95% CI: 0.63-0.95, p = 0.015) compared with FBiv. These results suggest that Flu + Mel has a more intense disease control potential and Flu + ivBu is less toxic than the other. Both RIC regimens provide similar survival outcomes and are effective and useful regimens for patients with AML who received allo-HCT.