First therapy choice in newly diagnosed Multiple Sclerosis patients: A multicenter Italian study.Mult Scler Relat Disord. 2020 Jul; 42:102059.MS
The approval of an increasing number of disease modifying drugs for the treatment of Multiple Sclerosis (MS) creates new challenges for patients and clinicians on the first treatment choice. The main aim of this study was to assess factors impacting first therapy choice in a large Italian MS cohort.
Newly diagnosed relapsing-remitting (RR) MS patients (2010-2018) followed in 24 Italian MS centres were included in the study. We evaluated the association of baseline demographics, clinical and MRI characteristics to the first treatment choice by logistic regression models applied to pre-defined binary alternatives: dimethyl fumarate vs injectables (interferon and glatiramer acetate), teriflunomide vs injectables, fingolimod vs dimethyl fumarate and fingolimod vs natalizumab.
We enrolled 3025 patients in the period between January 2010 and June 2018. Relapses in the previous year (OR = 2.75; p = 0.001), presence of spinal cord lesions (OR = 1.80; p = 0.002) and higher number (>9) of T2 lesions on the baseline brain MRI scan (OR = 1.65; p = 0.022) were the factors associated to dimethyl fumarate choice as first therapy vs an injectable drug. Older age (OR = 1.06; p < 0.001), male sex (OR = 2.29; p = 0.001) and higher EDSS (OR = 1.36; p < 0.001) were the factors associated with the choice of teriflunomide vs injectables. In more recent years, dimethyl fumarate (OR = 3.23; p < 0.001) and teriflunomide (OR = 2.53; p < 0.001) were chosen more frequently than injectables therapies. The main determinant for the choice of fingolimod as compared with dimethyl fumarate was a higher EDSS (OR = 1.56; p = 0.001), while there was a weak association with a longer disease duration (p = 0.068) and a longer time from onset to diagnosis (p = 0.085). Compared to fingolimod, natalizumab was preferred in patients with a younger age (OR = 0.95; p = 0.003) and higher EDSS (OR = 1.45; p = 0.007) and a shorter disease duration (OR = 0.52; p = 0.076).
Many factors guided therapeutic decision for our Italian cohort of MS patients; they are mainly related to MS disease activity, baseline EDSS, disease duration and age.