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The First 75 Days of Novel Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) Outbreak: Recent Advances, Prevention, and Treatment.
Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020 03 30; 17(7)IJ

Abstract

The recent severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2, previously known as 2019-nCoV) outbreak has engulfed an unprepared world amidst a festive season. The zoonotic SARS-CoV-2, believed to have originated from infected bats, is the seventh member of enveloped RNA coronavirus. Specifically, the overall genome sequence of the SARS-CoV-2 is 96.2% identical to that of bat coronavirus termed BatCoV RaTG13. Although the current mortality rate of 2% is significantly lower than that of SARS (9.6%) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) (35%), SARS-CoV-2 is highly contagious and transmissible from human to human with an incubation period of up to 24 days. Some statistical studies have shown that, on average, one infected patient may lead to a subsequent 5.7 confirmed cases. Since the first reported case of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the SARS-CoV-2 on December 1, 2019, in Wuhan, China, there has been a total of 60,412 confirmed cases with 1370 fatalities reported in 25 different countries as of February 13, 2020. The outbreak has led to severe impacts on social health and the economy at various levels. This paper is a review of the significant, continuous global effort that was made to respond to the outbreak in the first 75 days. Although no vaccines have been discovered yet, a series of containment measures have been implemented by various governments, especially in China, in the effort to prevent further outbreak, whilst various medical treatment approaches have been used to successfully treat infected patients. On the basis of current studies, it would appear that the combined antiviral treatment has shown the highest success rate. This review aims to critically summarize the most recent advances in understanding the coronavirus, as well as the strategies in prevention and treatment.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Faculty of Science and Engineering, University of Nottingham Ningbo China, Ningbo 315100, China.Faculty of Science and Engineering, University of Nottingham Malaysia Campus, Selangor 43500, Malaysia.Faculty of Science and Engineering, University of Nottingham Ningbo China, Ningbo 315100, China.Ningbo New Materials Institute, University of Nottingham, Ningbo 315042, China.Ningbo New Materials Institute, University of Nottingham, Ningbo 315042, China.Beijing International Center for Mathematical Research, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China.MITMECHE, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA.Faculty of Engineering, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham NG7 2RD, UK.Ningbo New Materials Institute, University of Nottingham, Ningbo 315042, China. Key Laboratory for Carbonaceous Wastes Processing and Process Intensification Research of Zhejiang Province, The University of Nottingham Ningbo China, Ningbo 315100, China.Faculty of Science and Engineering, University of Nottingham Ningbo China, Ningbo 315100, China. Key Laboratory for Carbonaceous Wastes Processing and Process Intensification Research of Zhejiang Province, The University of Nottingham Ningbo China, Ningbo 315100, China.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

32235575

Citation

Yan, Yuxin, et al. "The First 75 Days of Novel Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) Outbreak: Recent Advances, Prevention, and Treatment." International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, vol. 17, no. 7, 2020.
Yan Y, Shin WI, Pang YX, et al. The First 75 Days of Novel Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) Outbreak: Recent Advances, Prevention, and Treatment. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020;17(7).
Yan, Y., Shin, W. I., Pang, Y. X., Meng, Y., Lai, J., You, C., Zhao, H., Lester, E., Wu, T., & Pang, C. H. (2020). The First 75 Days of Novel Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) Outbreak: Recent Advances, Prevention, and Treatment. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(7). https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17072323
Yan Y, et al. The First 75 Days of Novel Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) Outbreak: Recent Advances, Prevention, and Treatment. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020 03 30;17(7) PubMed PMID: 32235575.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - The First 75 Days of Novel Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) Outbreak: Recent Advances, Prevention, and Treatment. AU - Yan,Yuxin, AU - Shin,Woo In, AU - Pang,Yoong Xin, AU - Meng,Yang, AU - Lai,Jianchen, AU - You,Chong, AU - Zhao,Haitao, AU - Lester,Edward, AU - Wu,Tao, AU - Pang,Cheng Heng, Y1 - 2020/03/30/ PY - 2020/02/14/received PY - 2020/03/05/revised PY - 2020/03/25/accepted PY - 2020/4/3/entrez PY - 2020/4/3/pubmed PY - 2020/4/9/medline KW - COVID-19 KW - SARS-CoV-2 KW - coronavirus KW - coronavirus-infected pneumonia KW - novel coronavirus pneumonia KW - zoonotic pathogen JF - International journal of environmental research and public health JO - Int J Environ Res Public Health VL - 17 IS - 7 N2 - The recent severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2, previously known as 2019-nCoV) outbreak has engulfed an unprepared world amidst a festive season. The zoonotic SARS-CoV-2, believed to have originated from infected bats, is the seventh member of enveloped RNA coronavirus. Specifically, the overall genome sequence of the SARS-CoV-2 is 96.2% identical to that of bat coronavirus termed BatCoV RaTG13. Although the current mortality rate of 2% is significantly lower than that of SARS (9.6%) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) (35%), SARS-CoV-2 is highly contagious and transmissible from human to human with an incubation period of up to 24 days. Some statistical studies have shown that, on average, one infected patient may lead to a subsequent 5.7 confirmed cases. Since the first reported case of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the SARS-CoV-2 on December 1, 2019, in Wuhan, China, there has been a total of 60,412 confirmed cases with 1370 fatalities reported in 25 different countries as of February 13, 2020. The outbreak has led to severe impacts on social health and the economy at various levels. This paper is a review of the significant, continuous global effort that was made to respond to the outbreak in the first 75 days. Although no vaccines have been discovered yet, a series of containment measures have been implemented by various governments, especially in China, in the effort to prevent further outbreak, whilst various medical treatment approaches have been used to successfully treat infected patients. On the basis of current studies, it would appear that the combined antiviral treatment has shown the highest success rate. This review aims to critically summarize the most recent advances in understanding the coronavirus, as well as the strategies in prevention and treatment. SN - 1660-4601 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/32235575/The_First_75_Days_of_Novel_Coronavirus__SARS_CoV_2__Outbreak:_Recent_Advances_Prevention_and_Treatment_ L2 - http://www.mdpi.com/resolver?pii=ijerph17072323 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -