Exceptional diversity of opsin expression patterns in Neogonodactylus oerstedii (Stomatopoda) retinas.Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2020 04 21; 117(16):8948-8957.PN
Stomatopod crustaceans possess some of the most complex animal visual systems, including at least 16 spectrally distinct types of photoreceptive units (e.g., assemblages of photoreceptor cells). Here we fully characterize the set of opsin genes expressed in retinal tissues and determine expression patterns of each in the stomatopod Neogonodactylus oerstedii Using a combination of transcriptome and RACE sequencing, we identified 33 opsin transcripts expressed in each N. oerstedii eye, which are predicted to form 20 long-wavelength-sensitive, 10 middle-wavelength-sensitive, and three UV-sensitive visual pigments. Observed expression patterns of these 33 transcripts were highly unusual in five respects: 1) All long-wavelength and short/middle-wavelength photoreceptive units expressed multiple opsins, while UV photoreceptor cells expressed single opsins; 2) most of the long-wavelength photoreceptive units expressed at least one middle-wavelength-sensitive opsin transcript; 3) the photoreceptors involved in spatial, motion, and polarization vision expressed more transcripts than those involved in color vision; 4) there is a unique opsin transcript that is expressed in all eight of the photoreceptive units devoted to color vision; and 5) expression patterns in the peripheral hemispheres of the eyes suggest visual specializations not previously recognized in stomatopods. Elucidating the expression patterns of all opsin transcripts expressed in the N. oerstedii retina reveals the potential for previously undocumented functional diversity in the already complex stomatopod eye and is a first step toward understanding the functional significance of the unusual abundance of opsins found in many arthropod species' visual systems.