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Synthesis of Novel Polymeric Acrylate-Based Flame Retardants Containing Two Phosphorus Groups in Different Chemical Environments and Their Influence on the Flammability of Poly (Lactic Acid).
Polymers (Basel). 2020 Apr 01; 12(4)P

Abstract

Novel polymeric acrylate-based flame retardants (FR 1-4) containing two phosphorus groups in different chemical environments were synthesized in three steps and characterized via nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and mass spectrometry (MS). Polylactic acid (PLA) formulations with the synthesized compounds were investigated to evaluate the efficiency of these flame retardants and their mode of action by using TGA, UL94, and cone calorimetry. In order to compare the results a flame retardant polyester containing only one phosphorus group (ItaP) was also investigated in PLA regarding its flame inhibiting effect. Since the fire behavior depends not only on the mode of action of the flame retardants but also strongly on physical phenomena like melt dripping, the flame retardants were also incorporated into PLA with higher viscosity. In the UL94 vertical burning test setup, 10% of the novel flame retardants (FR 1-4) is sufficient to reach a V-0 rating in both PLA types, while a loading of 15% of ItaP is not enough to reach the same classification. Despite their different structure, TGA and cone calorimetry results confirmed a gas phase mechanism mainly responsible for the highly efficient flame retardancy for all compounds. Finally, cone calorimetry tests of the flame retardant PLA with two heat fluxes showed different flame inhibiting efficiencies for different fire scenarios.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Polymer Synthesis, Fraunhofer Institute for Structural Durability and System Reliability LBF, Schlossgartenstraβe 6, D-64289 Darmstadt, Germany.Department of Polymer Synthesis, Fraunhofer Institute for Structural Durability and System Reliability LBF, Schlossgartenstraβe 6, D-64289 Darmstadt, Germany.Department of Polymer Synthesis, Fraunhofer Institute for Structural Durability and System Reliability LBF, Schlossgartenstraβe 6, D-64289 Darmstadt, Germany.Department of Bio-Based Plastics, Fraunhofer Institute for Environmental, Safety and Energy Technology, UMSICHT, Osterfelder Straβe 3, D-46047 Oberhausen, Germany.Department of Bio-Based Plastics, Fraunhofer Institute for Environmental, Safety and Energy Technology, UMSICHT, Osterfelder Straβe 3, D-46047 Oberhausen, Germany.Department of Polymer Synthesis, Fraunhofer Institute for Structural Durability and System Reliability LBF, Schlossgartenstraβe 6, D-64289 Darmstadt, Germany.Department of Polymer Synthesis, Fraunhofer Institute for Structural Durability and System Reliability LBF, Schlossgartenstraβe 6, D-64289 Darmstadt, Germany.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

32244836

Citation

Sag, Jacob, et al. "Synthesis of Novel Polymeric Acrylate-Based Flame Retardants Containing Two Phosphorus Groups in Different Chemical Environments and Their Influence On the Flammability of Poly (Lactic Acid)." Polymers, vol. 12, no. 4, 2020.
Sag J, Kukla P, Goedderz D, et al. Synthesis of Novel Polymeric Acrylate-Based Flame Retardants Containing Two Phosphorus Groups in Different Chemical Environments and Their Influence on the Flammability of Poly (Lactic Acid). Polymers (Basel). 2020;12(4).
Sag, J., Kukla, P., Goedderz, D., Roch, H., Kabasci, S., Döring, M., & Schönberger, F. (2020). Synthesis of Novel Polymeric Acrylate-Based Flame Retardants Containing Two Phosphorus Groups in Different Chemical Environments and Their Influence on the Flammability of Poly (Lactic Acid). Polymers, 12(4). https://doi.org/10.3390/polym12040778
Sag J, et al. Synthesis of Novel Polymeric Acrylate-Based Flame Retardants Containing Two Phosphorus Groups in Different Chemical Environments and Their Influence On the Flammability of Poly (Lactic Acid). Polymers (Basel). 2020 Apr 1;12(4) PubMed PMID: 32244836.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Synthesis of Novel Polymeric Acrylate-Based Flame Retardants Containing Two Phosphorus Groups in Different Chemical Environments and Their Influence on the Flammability of Poly (Lactic Acid). AU - Sag,Jacob, AU - Kukla,Philipp, AU - Goedderz,Daniela, AU - Roch,Hendrik, AU - Kabasci,Stephan, AU - Döring,Manfred, AU - Schönberger,Frank, Y1 - 2020/04/01/ PY - 2020/02/28/received PY - 2020/03/23/revised PY - 2020/03/24/accepted PY - 2020/4/5/entrez PY - 2020/4/5/pubmed PY - 2020/4/5/medline KW - acrylate-based flame retardant KW - phosphorus-based flame retardant KW - polylactic acid JF - Polymers JO - Polymers (Basel) VL - 12 IS - 4 N2 - Novel polymeric acrylate-based flame retardants (FR 1-4) containing two phosphorus groups in different chemical environments were synthesized in three steps and characterized via nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and mass spectrometry (MS). Polylactic acid (PLA) formulations with the synthesized compounds were investigated to evaluate the efficiency of these flame retardants and their mode of action by using TGA, UL94, and cone calorimetry. In order to compare the results a flame retardant polyester containing only one phosphorus group (ItaP) was also investigated in PLA regarding its flame inhibiting effect. Since the fire behavior depends not only on the mode of action of the flame retardants but also strongly on physical phenomena like melt dripping, the flame retardants were also incorporated into PLA with higher viscosity. In the UL94 vertical burning test setup, 10% of the novel flame retardants (FR 1-4) is sufficient to reach a V-0 rating in both PLA types, while a loading of 15% of ItaP is not enough to reach the same classification. Despite their different structure, TGA and cone calorimetry results confirmed a gas phase mechanism mainly responsible for the highly efficient flame retardancy for all compounds. Finally, cone calorimetry tests of the flame retardant PLA with two heat fluxes showed different flame inhibiting efficiencies for different fire scenarios. SN - 2073-4360 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/32244836/Synthesis_of_Novel_Polymeric_Acrylate_Based_Flame_Retardants_Containing_Two_Phosphorus_Groups_in_Different_Chemical_Environments_and_Their_Influence_on_the_Flammability_of_Poly__Lactic_Acid__ L2 - https://www.mdpi.com/resolver?pii=polym12040778 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -
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