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Smoking Upregulates Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme-2 Receptor: A Potential Adhesion Site for Novel Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 (Covid-19).
J Clin Med. 2020 Mar 20; 9(3)JC

Abstract

The epicenter of the original outbreak in China has high male smoking rates of around 50%, and early reported death rates have an emphasis on older males, therefore the likelihood of smokers being overrepresented in fatalities is high. In Iran, China, Italy, and South Korea, female smoking rates are much lower than males. Fewer females have contracted the virus. If this analysis is correct, then Indonesia would be expected to begin experiencing high rates of Covid-19 because its male smoking rate is over 60% (Tobacco Atlas). Smokers are vulnerable to respiratory viruses. Smoking can upregulate angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2) receptor, the known receptor for both the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and the human respiratory coronavirus NL638. This could also be true for new electronic smoking devices such as electronic cigarettes and "heat-not-burn" IQOS devices. ACE2 could be a novel adhesion molecule for SARS-CoV-2 causing Covid-19 and a potential therapeutic target for the prevention of fatal microbial infections, and therefore it should be fast tracked and prioritized for research and investigation. Data on smoking status should be collected on all identified cases of Covid-19.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Respiratory Translational Research Group, Department of Laboratory Medicine, School of Health Sciences, University of Tasmania, Launceston, Tasmania 7248, Australia.School of Medicine, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Tasmania 7001, Australia.Respiratory Translational Research Group, Department of Laboratory Medicine, School of Health Sciences, University of Tasmania, Launceston, Tasmania 7248, Australia.Respiratory Translational Research Group, Department of Laboratory Medicine, School of Health Sciences, University of Tasmania, Launceston, Tasmania 7248, Australia.Respiratory Translational Research Group, Department of Laboratory Medicine, School of Health Sciences, University of Tasmania, Launceston, Tasmania 7248, Australia.Respiratory Translational Research Group, Department of Laboratory Medicine, School of Health Sciences, University of Tasmania, Launceston, Tasmania 7248, Australia.

Pub Type(s)

Editorial

Language

eng

PubMed ID

32244852

Citation

Brake, Samuel James, et al. "Smoking Upregulates Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme-2 Receptor: a Potential Adhesion Site for Novel Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 (Covid-19)." Journal of Clinical Medicine, vol. 9, no. 3, 2020.
Brake SJ, Barnsley K, Lu W, et al. Smoking Upregulates Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme-2 Receptor: A Potential Adhesion Site for Novel Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 (Covid-19). J Clin Med. 2020;9(3).
Brake, S. J., Barnsley, K., Lu, W., McAlinden, K. D., Eapen, M. S., & Sohal, S. S. (2020). Smoking Upregulates Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme-2 Receptor: A Potential Adhesion Site for Novel Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 (Covid-19). Journal of Clinical Medicine, 9(3). https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9030841
Brake SJ, et al. Smoking Upregulates Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme-2 Receptor: a Potential Adhesion Site for Novel Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 (Covid-19). J Clin Med. 2020 Mar 20;9(3) PubMed PMID: 32244852.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Smoking Upregulates Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme-2 Receptor: A Potential Adhesion Site for Novel Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 (Covid-19). AU - Brake,Samuel James, AU - Barnsley,Kathryn, AU - Lu,Wenying, AU - McAlinden,Kielan Darcy, AU - Eapen,Mathew Suji, AU - Sohal,Sukhwinder Singh, Y1 - 2020/03/20/ PY - 2020/03/17/received PY - 2020/03/18/accepted PY - 2020/4/5/entrez PY - 2020/4/5/pubmed PY - 2020/4/5/medline KW - ACE2 receptor KW - COPD KW - Covid-19 KW - Electronic cigarettes KW - Heat-Not-Burn KW - IQOS KW - SARS-CoV-2 KW - Smoking KW - Vaping JF - Journal of clinical medicine JO - J Clin Med VL - 9 IS - 3 N2 - The epicenter of the original outbreak in China has high male smoking rates of around 50%, and early reported death rates have an emphasis on older males, therefore the likelihood of smokers being overrepresented in fatalities is high. In Iran, China, Italy, and South Korea, female smoking rates are much lower than males. Fewer females have contracted the virus. If this analysis is correct, then Indonesia would be expected to begin experiencing high rates of Covid-19 because its male smoking rate is over 60% (Tobacco Atlas). Smokers are vulnerable to respiratory viruses. Smoking can upregulate angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2) receptor, the known receptor for both the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and the human respiratory coronavirus NL638. This could also be true for new electronic smoking devices such as electronic cigarettes and "heat-not-burn" IQOS devices. ACE2 could be a novel adhesion molecule for SARS-CoV-2 causing Covid-19 and a potential therapeutic target for the prevention of fatal microbial infections, and therefore it should be fast tracked and prioritized for research and investigation. Data on smoking status should be collected on all identified cases of Covid-19. SN - 2077-0383 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/32244852/full_citation L2 - https://www.mdpi.com/resolver?pii=jcm9030841 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -
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